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Wind energy: origin, function and future
Humanity has used the wind in its favor since quite past times, the first civilization that dates the use of wind are the Egyptians around 3000 to.C, this town occupied the wind for the navigation of the ships on the Nile River. The uses of the wind were improving over the years and the villages where they were presented for example in China the windmills were occupied to pump water in 200 to.C and this same conception of windmill was taken to Europe where it was used to grind grains;This wind use was stopped by the industrial revolution where coal or electricity machines predominated.
After a while and influence from the emigration of European population to North America, it produced that technology knowledge also goes to North America where the scientist Charles F. Brush took advantage of that conception. Charles Francis Bush was an American inventor and industrialist who was born on March 17, 1849 in Ohio, stood out for the lamp -arc project which has the following operation: “ARC Lamp, device for producing light by mainting an electric arc across aGAP Between Two drivers;LIGHT COMES FROM THE HEATED ENDS OF THE CONDUCTS (Usually Carbon Rods) As Well As From The Arc Itself."
It also formed the Bush Electric company that worked until 1892 where it was absorbed by Edison General Electric Company.
In relation to wind use, he created in 1887 what in Concepción General is the first electric wind generator being the largest with a diameter of 17 meters with 144 blades made of cedar wood that occupied him to recharge the batteries of his mansion and hadA useful life of 20 years but for its large dimensions it only generated 12 kW. On December 20, 1890, this wind generator appeared in the Scientific American magazine where they stressed the automated electrical control of that generator.
These not so efficient North American mills were improved by the Danish Poul the Cour which came to the conclusion that it was not necessaryMove to the mechanism, it is more effective.
Poul the Cour was a meteorologist born in Ebeltoft, a meteorology studio at the University of Copenhagen and subsequently complemented its learning in Netherlands. In 1872 he was appointed deputy director when the Danish weather institute was created where two years later he would bow on telegraphy.
He began his investigations about the force of the wind and how to take advantage of this resource in 1890 where he used chemical means to store wind energy and also design an air tunnel to be able to experience better way.
This technological advance allowed the Danish people to be today the leader in terms of percentage of electricity consumption coming from wind energy being that it beat two records, one in December 2013 where 57.4% of energy consumed came from wind energy andThe other was the same year where wind energy generated the equivalent of 102% of national consumption.
Albert Betz, was a German physicist who lived between 1885 and 1968 who raised a law that established wind use through kinetic energy delimiting the maximum point in which this could be taken advantage of.
As we see we are talking about what today we call wind energy, although this law focuses on a pillar of it. We begin to understand that wind energy is able to recover and transform thanks to the collection and movement of the wind in what we call wind turbine.
In this sense, we must know the hypothesis that Betz rethinks about air and wind turbines based on those that Rankine and Freud did, these are:
- The wind can be conceived as a fluid without viscosity less in the vicinity of the rotor, so it is an incomprehensible fluid since it moves subsally which causes that of doubts of it becomes a constant, therefore the issueFrom the temperature produced there is a dynamic fluid theme in relation to the rotor.
- The possible changes that can be generated in the previous hypocrisy will depend on the work point taking into account the work point, which will be mandatory in a stationary regime, therefore neither the speed nor the wake that the rotor acquires will be taken inbill.
- Of the rotor mentioned the specifications with which it must comply are that it is necessarily to be a fixed porous disk attached to this blades or chosen of variable thickness.
- Finally, the magnitudes obtained by the wind must be determined in a current tube from which its thickness and length profile should be taken into account, such that fluid variables can be represented.
Taking into account that Betz puts into practice what is known as the ideal braking of the wind, this consists of the following: the more kinetic energy the winds produces the winds will increase proportionally with the relief that the wind will suffer when leaving the wind turbine, this happens becauseIf all the wind energy is stress, the wind that enters will come out with a zero speed because it will not be able to leave the blades therefore the extraction of energy would not occur. This is because if air does not come out dueAll the wind that enters the wind turbine leaves in the same way without being hindered, no energy will be obtained.
In this way we must remember and assume that to generate energy obtainCA type, the wind turbine must slow down the wind two thirds of the speed that enters and this is where Betz’s limit law enters.