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Which is speculative Freemasonry
As we have stated, contemporary Freemasonry, called speculative to differentiate it from the previous operational Freemasonry linked to the construction trades, takes place in the decline of the unions. To a large extent, this decline is nothing but a reflection of the end of medieval society and the beginning of modern society. It is one of many manifestations of the transformation of society that progressively abandons the old regime and enters the capitalist society.
This transformation within the lodges was not traumatic, radical, or abrupt;Although it was not oblivious to strong conflicts, such as that starring companionship, the remains of operational Freemasonry, which resisted giving power to the accepted masons. Despite these problems, the process, in general terms, was a natural consequence accepted by the Masons that understood that they were in the transition of two radically different society models.
Freemasonry wanted his accommodation in society, which arose inevitable, retained the best of the past while hugging the best of the future. Thus, together with an openness to ado -adagmatic thinking, Freemasonry retained the esteem for the spiritual;defending that the exoteric was the result of the esoteric. That is, meritorious behavior and virtuosity could only nest in the soul of the pious man that is conducted within the highest standards of morals.
Faced with the break with the old regime, Freemasonry adopts a structure of degrees and retains a lot of cavalry orders. Although, titles and degrees are not acquired in Freemasonry by inheritance or wealth, as was the case in the old regime, but that man rose to a dignity according to his merit and the recognition of his effort and firm and polite character thatThey granted their brothers. It was not a traumatic end of the old regime, but an evolution characterized by reinventing the chivalrous spirit in the middle of a society that was inexorable towards an exacerbated materialism.
Faced with classes, Freemasonry opts for fraternity, concord and cohesion based on common ideals that transcend the political or ideological and sink their roots into universal principles that identify with the natural law.
Before a science and a reason that questions religion and even spirituality, imbued with a materialism that denies anything that cannot be heavy and measured;Freemasonry defends spiritual search as a consubstantial and innate virtue in man. While, renie of religious fanaticism, also denies atheist and materialistic fanaticism, seeking a balance that manifests in the defense of religious freedom and conscience. Thus, Freemasonry proclaims that good Mason will never be a religious fanatic, but it will not be an irlotious stupid.
This process that seeks to build a bridge between the past and the future, to some extent, is still open in the lodges, as it is a process that has its own manifestation in each new Mason that begins. Stripping of metals at the door of the temple, leaves the profane world and enters a sacred space where he must embrace the doubt as a means to reborn stronger and wiser.
An early sample of these high ideals is found in the so -called regius manuscript, a poem of the late fourteenth century, even in the time of operational predominance, where there is talk of good customs, civics and courtesy that the Mason must observe for itselfsame and for the community in which he lives. It is an example of the fraternal, cultural and philanthropic work that Freemasonry performs in pursuit of society as a whole, under the ideal or maximum that construction perceives, as a physical space, as a reflection of a spiritual construction that widens the heart andThe mind of man. This is the reason why in the midst of religious conflicts, when Catholics and Protestants have sworn eachYour ideas without danger. Cases such as Newton’s initiation are an example of the conciliatory spirit of Freemasonry and how, little by little, it became a completely speculative movement.
Aparty. In fact, without the existence of the Royal Society and the link that its first members had with Freemasonry, it would have been very difficult, if not, impossible, the consolidation of speculative masonry and its subsequent evolution based on those old medieval unions.
The initiation of Guillermo III of Orange, in 1694, and the omnipresence in all the lodges of Rosicruces and Illustrated, definitely mark the transformation, without an involution option, of the operational masonry in speculative and the definitive integration of the chivalrous ideals.
Operational Freemasonry disappears and in 1717 the Grand Lodge of England is constituted (its first name was Grand Lod of London and Westminster), which groups the lodges that existed there. From that moment on and with "the Constitutions" of Anderson, written five years later, under the teacher of the Duke of Wharton, the Freemasonry is declared legally speculative, and the new initiates should not be accepted by the ancient artisans but can formHis own sovereign lodges.
The expansion is very quickly, supported by the preexistence of lodges in most European countries in which they already worked exclusively speculatively, and only one regulation was needed that legitimized them to be able to constitute the respective large lodges that coordinate the works.
In Spain, it is the Duke of Wharton, Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of England, who founded the First Lodge in Madrid in 1728, becoming more than two hundred regular lodges in just twenty years and having the great London Lodge of London a great greatProvincial Master dedicated to exclusively supervising Andalusia. Unfortunately, the unpresentable Spanish kings Felipe V and Fernando VI, following the mandates of Pope Clemente XII and Benedict XIV respectively, let the Inquisition chase and murder thousands of Masons.
In France, the Lodge Friendship and Fraternity to the East of Dunkerque was created in 1721, although since 1688 there was one that was later legalized with the name of perfect equality.
In Germany, the Hamburg AbsalomIn dresde three other lodges: the three white eagles, the three swords and the three swans.
In Austria, despite being a country of the Catholic orbit at that time, the Bula de Clemente XII that condemned Freemasonry in 1738 is not accepted and Count Josef von Hoditz, under the initiative of Count Schaffgotsch, creates in the sameVienna La Lodia Three Canyons in 1742. In this disobedience to the Pope, without a doubt, the fact that Emperor Francisco I was a Mason himself, started eleven years before, on May 14, 1731, in the Hague by a delegation of the Grand Lod of London.
From the approval of the Constitutions, new lodges are opened throughout Europe. Chronologically there are evidence of lodges that raise columns in Mons, Belgium, in 1721;In Warsaw, Poland, in 1730;in Moscow, Russia, in 1732;in Florence, Italy, in 1733;in Lisbon, Portugal, in 1735;in Stockholm, Sweden, in 1735;in Geneva, Switzerland, in 1736;in Presburg (Bratislava), Hungary, in 1740;in Prague, Czechoslovakia, in 1741;in Copenhagen, Denmark, in 1743;in Christiana (Oslo), Norway, in 1745;In Corfú, Greece in 1780, etc. that reflect the rapid acceptance and hatching of Freemasonry, although it was not oblivious to internal conflicts and problems of legitimacy, because at that time there was some resistance by the latest operational masons guilds, a conflict known as companionship. However, the main problem arose within the English Masonry of speculative nature.
In 1751 a group of accepted Masons constituted the so -called Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons from England, arguing that England’s Grand Lodge was moving away from traditional principles and introducing certain innovations, such as the Anderson Constitutions themselves. This new Grand Lodge was based on the rules given to Freemasonry by Prince Eduardo, in York, in 926 D.C. This lodge was nicknamed that of the ancients, although in reality its creation was later and drafted their own statutes or constitutions, called Ahiman Rezon, a name of Hebrew origin that would mean "help to a brother".
The drafting of new norms, even if they argued that they were inspired or based on the rules of Prince Eduardo, contradicts the reason of being of this lodge of "the ancients";While it is true that in their rituals they seem more respectful of tradition than "the modern", in particular by the conflict created when introducing the degree of teacher, as well as the installation ceremonies of the venerable teachers.
In the operational lodges there were only two practical degrees: apprentice and partner. The teacher was the current equivalent to the venerable teacher. However, in the speculative lodges the idea of an in the middle or school of teachers who collectively governed the lodge under the direction of a venerable that would act in the ideal mode of inter -pairs, the first among equals. This issue still generates some controversy and there is no common point of view nor is it possible. For many, this was one of the reasons why some Masons did not want to accept the authority of the New Grand Lodge of England and created the great lodge of the ancients. However, the issue affected more in relation to the companionship than between these two great lodges, which de facto assumed the new speculative, philosophical and ritual principles. The division, probably, originated from much more mundane reasons, such as Anglo-Irlandes tensions. Indeed, and as he pointed out, we believe that Henry Sadler rightly in 1887, in his work, facts and masonic fictions, the truth is that the great lodge of the free and accepted freemasons of England was constituted by Irish immigrants in London in London.
On the other hand, we must mention that the so -called Scottish Freemasonry lived its own evolution, very influenced for its support for Jacobites and exile in France of more than forty thousand Scots and Irish.
The Unification of Freemasonry that would lead to the call currently regular or Anglo -Saxon Freemason. The reason for this reunification must be found in the will of the English monarch and the link that Masonry has always had with the aristocracy. Thus, the children of Jorge III, the Duke of Sussex and the Duke of Kent, will become great teachers of the two great lodges, unifying them and being the Duke of Sussex the first great teacher of the New Grand Lodge. This link of regular Freemasonry with the nobility still survives today, as evidenceUnique that can recognize certain degrees, such as Mark Mason or brand teacher.
This unification not only affected administrative or jurisdictional issues, it also influenced – and much – in ritual issues. In fact, the result of this unification was created a new rite, the so -called rite of emulation, also known as reconciliation, which is one of the most widespread and practiced in the world today. Rite, in addition, in which you work in all the big lodges.
Scottish Freemasonry ended. And it is that the "Scotlandists" are very jealous of the sovereignty of their lodges and does not like the great teachers or any authority above those chosen in their lodges or in their rite, the nose targets in the issues that are their own. Perhaps, this is due to two important issues: the first that its origin as a rite is Catholic, that is, it evolved among the Irish and Scottish Catholics who were exiled in France after supporting the cause of the legitimate King Jacobo;The second, which among the rites known as Scots is the old and accepted Scottish rite, the first rite that emerged in the New World. And it is also in America, Masonry achieved a rapid expansion, on many occasions relying on speculative lodges that had been working for some time. Well -known was the establishment in 1730 of the Pennsylvania Gazette Lodge, which would be the lodge in which Benjamín Franklin is initiated. There is also a record of lodges in Nueva Scotia and Canada, as well as in Mexico, Cuba, Peru, Argentina, etc. In fact, by the end of the 18th century, practically all the big American cities had at least an active lodge.
Freemasonry would continue throughout the 18th and 19th century extending throughout the globe. India, China, Japan or Turkey also saw very soon important lodges that radiated their light to the world.
Towards the second half of the nineteenth century, specifically in 1854, the great fracture of the Masonic regularity and irregularity that has divided the Masonic world into two different lines of evolution and that currently last current. Such an important issue to understand the reality of Freemasonry in our times that we have dedicated our own section in this work, so we will not stop here and refer the reader to the aforementioned chapter in order not to make us repetitive.
To mention, finally, that throughout its history, Freemasonry adorns its lodges with the work of men as illustrious as: Amadeo de Savoya, Bacon, Benito Juárez, Simón Bolívar, Blasco Ibáñez, Cantinflas, Castelar, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Sir Winston Churchill, Echegaray, Espronceda, Fleming, Garibaldi, Goethe, Haydn, Isaac Peral, José Martí, Kant, Kipling, Lafayette, Lindbergh, Liszt, Lord Byron, Marath, Montesquieu, Moratín, Mozart, Napoleon, Ortega I Gasset,Ramón y Cajal, Roosevelt, Sagasta, Sibelius, Sorolla, Truman, Vogel, Voltaire, Washington, Wellington, Oscar Wilde, Zorrilla and an endless list of characters from which to proud. As of the very long list of women from whom we also had the fate of learning thanks to their example in the lodges and in the profane world: Josefina de Beauharnais, Louise Michel, Annie Besant, Clara Barreno, Josefina Baker, Gilberte Arcambal,Clara Campoamor, Victoria Kent, Ángeles López de Ayala, Clotilde Cerdá, Julia Ayma, etc., examples of life and commitment that inspire all the masons in the world.