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Western population growth
Asia is the most populous continent on the planet. However, the population and growth difference, both in southern and East Asia, begin to worry the researchers. It is estimated that in a few years countries such as India will overcome the current China in population number. In the same way, other more developed countries, such as Japan, will begin to have serious economic problems because of the aging of their population. We will discuss in this article some of the demographic challenges facing the Asian continent.
The population of Asia is unevenly distributed over the continent. This imbalance is the main cause of the demographic problems to which areas such as South Asia and East Asia are currently facing and will face them in the future. South Asia has a population that exceeds 1605 million inhabitants, exceeding 100 million inhabitants to East Asia.
Areas with excess population, as is the case with Bangladés or Hong Kong, have a population density that exceeds 1000 inhabitants per km². On the contrary, other areas are totally deserted, such as Pakistan, some Indonesian islands and the highlands of Tibet. According to experts, South Asia is expected to continue to be the fastest population growth region in the world. Growth greater than 7.1 % is calculated by the year 2020 as a result of the improvements produced in recent years.
Population imbalances in Oriental Asia
In the case of Oriental Asia, there is China, the most populous country on the planet. Its current population is around 1361 million inhabitants, according to the UN. His special situation is due to politics, already abolished, of the only child. As a consequence of it, its male population almost triples to the female today.
And with a population of 127 million inhabitants, Japan maintains the country’s title with the highest life expectancy on the planet. However, today it faces the loss of population due to high aging. In the last five years, almost one million people have died in Japan. Other problems are Tokyo’s overpopulation and the abandonment of rural areas.
The increase in human development index in Asia
Two of the factors that accelerate population growth are the improvement of the education system and health improvement. Global, in recent years, more than two million people have left extreme poverty conditions. Within that figure, the highest percentage is concentrated in South Asia.
In this region, the growth rate records an annual average in the Human Development Index (HDI) of 1.4%. Countries like Bangladés or Nepal, despite their low population compared to the rest of Asia, lowered poverty quotas. Even so, there are several countries that are well below the desired IHD. Regarding these great powers of Oriental Asia, it is believed that the incentives for the insertion of young people in working life could benefit that demographic growth that begins to be negative. Policies that support the increase in women’s role in working life and improvement in education could be decisive in China.
As for Japan, the government is still concerned about low birth rate, in addition to having one of the most aging populations in the world. The latter, added to the excess population of urban areas, has immediately react to the Shinzo Abe government. The new policies try to reverse this trend and stop migratory flow to cities like Tokyo. In the same way that China wishes to increase the presence of women within the labor market and improve their conditions to favor an increase in birth.
Finally, it is also important to highlight the effects of rapid industrialization and urbanization on the environmental degradation suffered by the continent. Deforestation is one of the most serious threats facing Asia. It attacks very differently, as is the case of Indonesia for the exploitation of the palm or the lack of natural resources in the case of Japan.