- Show more
Water conservation and supply
The problem of drinking water does not have a permanent solution. Therefore, to this relationship, new supply sources must always investigate, hydrological or geohydrological studies to expand systems. The increase in population and the increase in their cultural and social level make the projected works insufficient in a short time, thus preventing existing works from maintaining the rhythm of the necessary growth.
The importance of water supply contains different areas, such as the causes of human diseases due to the inappropriate use by different actors that use it, excessive allocation, dangerous and non -dangerous emerging pollutants for which strategies must be sought in turn. Risks to obtain optimal results for the same use or the same use.
Water is a great category resource for the economy and the improvement of a community. The rare use or misuse has established hazards for humans, as well as for industrial agricultural sectors, which explains why water supply is not expected as a simple public or technical administration, but also with a transcendental social connotation and social connotationterritorial.
So that emerging pollutants of hazardous and non -dangerous substances generate toxicity that obtains transpose to the rejection of the use of a principle of water for human health consumption or forcing the use of treatment techniques that cover remedy, prevention and mitigation measures,in this way as the culmination of management strategies without risk of contamination and thus form purification when used. In the following trial, the objectives of water supply will be announced, in addition to its natural and usable components to understand it much better.
Know the basic concepts of the different technical disciplines that are used in the fields of the supply and sanitation of water in cooperation projects, creating emphasis on their main characteristics and problems: in the field of hydrology, analyze and present the fundamental summaries of the cycleHydrological, in this way as some techniques for quantification of these phenomena applied to the solution of engineering problems.
The supply must be achieved first studying the place of obtaining and conducting, its effectiveness and health to avoid water order. Likewise, the capacity of the source, conduction and storage based on a minimum expenditure of 25 to 30 liters per person should be taken into account. Water can be obtained:
- Collecting and storing rainwater.
- Use of the water that runs through the surface of the Earth reaching the beds of the rivers, which are formed in the mountains with the waters of streams and springs, progressively increasing its flow by the contribution of a network of tributaries that are going toserve the same basin.
- Using the water infiltrated by the layers of the terrain that naturally derive outside in the springs or capturing it from the underground liquid veins. From the technical point of view, hydrology is a starting point in the face of any action in development cooperation projects related to the water resource.
It is formed by water in the three solid, liquid and gaseous states, present in the atmospheric layer water vapor, clouds and in the terrestrial cortex rivers, lakes, aquifers. The concept of the hydrological cycle, or water cycle, is based on the assumption that the total amount or mass of water in the hydrosphere is constant over time and that this consideration implies that of the movement of water bodies. From one place to another and / or from one state to another. The hydrological cycle is a continuous cause. However, the movement of water in the hydrological cycle is determined by its irregularity in time and space.
The main components of the hydrological cycle contain phases in which humans do not directly exploit water: precipitation, evapotranspiration, interception and retention of surface water, infiltration and water in the non -saturated area. However, human beings obtain to influence them, causing artificial rains, reducing evaporation, artificial recharge, special irrigation techniques, etc. Bromatological regulation Drinking water must respond to the following characteristics:
- · Be toilet, clean, colorless, pleasant taste.
- · Hardness expressed in Caco3 not more than 300 mg and not less than 50 mg per liter.
- · PH between 6.5 to 8.5
- · The reached of mineral salts not greater than 1.5 g per liter
- · Does not contain any harmful substance for health.
- · The treated and purified drinking water through chlorine cannot contain more than 0.4 ppm of nickel and less than 0.20 ppm of free or residual chlorine.
The authors of the hydrology cycle corresponding to the phases of the home exploit the live: direct runoff and underground runoff form the total exploitable volume, in theory, by man. Reservoir construction, river deviation, surface water use, aquifer replacement, artificial recharge, saline intrusion, etc.
Measuring expeditions in an episode is a simple procedure. It consists of accumulating the precipitated water in a container, of course that the height of the water, in mm, is equal to the total precipitation, in l / m2. Thus, total annual precipitation can be obtained, in the form of the sum of all the rains of the year. We correspond to the great spatial variability that the rain obtains, mainly in city areas or marked slopes. The introduction of a pump in a pressure flow section is not counted as a loss, but as an energy gain
As mentioned in the presentation of this module, the amount of water on the planet is constant, it only changes state and its distribution varies in the global hydrological cycle. However, in all the waters of the earth, only 3%, a lower percentage if we only take into account what circulates in the rivers, which is in the lakes or what is confined in accessible aquifers, is considered watersweet. However, there is a considerable amount.
Unfortunately, its distribution is not very homogeneous and we find areas of the planet where this resource is very rare. In some cases, shortage is not due to tight inventories, but to a growing demand, greater than the supply. At the same time, the amount of water is reduced if its quality does not make it appropriate for the purpose for which it is intended. This is due to the processes of degradation and contamination salinization, nitrates, heavy metals, hydrocarbons, wastewater, etc., that may have different origins and causes.
A date that corroborates this shortage is that today, for various reasons, almost a fifth of the planet’s population does not have access to drinking water. Drinking water is a basic human need. Unfortunately, more than one in six people still do not have reliable access to this valuable resource. The problem is particularly serious in developing countries.
This project examines the state of the world water supply and what can be done to improve it. The resources section indicates the location of water on Earth and how these areas can be protected. The types of resources available also determine the types of administrative techniques that can be used to make the most of the last drop of water.
- Water supply and wastewater removal Fair, Geyer & Okun, Noriega Limusa, 1968
- Drinking water for rural populations – Service supply systems and without treatment Agüero Pittman, Roger, Rural Educational Services SER, Peru, 1996
- Emergencies and disasters in drinking water and sanitation systems: Guide for an effective response Pan American Health Organization, Washington DC, 2001
- World Health Organization World Health Assembly of Provisional Day March 29, 2000
- Prieto, 2002 the supply and use of water