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Violence towards women in Mexico
Regarding this issue, several investigations have been developed in relation to gender and urban security around the world, from the social perspective Massolo, (2005) developed a job in El Salvador, in which he identified that the public spaces of the cities are markedDue to inequalities between genres, thus representing a risk for women, resulting in different types of violence that can be found within urban context and how insecurity directly affects violence against women. In her research she found a classification of violence (for reason, type, and actors: victimizer or victim), the author used a quantitative methodology based on accumulated experiences of the European Forum for Urban Security that covers more than 200 cities with experiences of agreementTo gender violence, Massolo is pending the way of re-signify.
In Mexico Fuentes Romero, (2005) studied different actions that exist to control violence. And explains the types of violence that exist, Fuentes Romero says that violence is a clear expression of citizen insecurity. The author emphasizes that public insecurity is generated in a context of economic instability, little education, poor health services, growing political instability, zero credibility in future governments, inequality and unemployment, all of which causes a series of needs andOpportunities to commit some social grievance, from home robberies, cars or shops, to personal assaults, homicides, kidnappings and drug trafficking.
This research was supported by a quantitative methodology in the collection of information based on personal research, vital statistics and government data analysis.
Fuentes Romero, (2005) found that the solution to combat crime and violence in urban centers should be through real participation by members of the company for the elaboration of security plans and programs, as well asDetermine action priorities together with the government. Leave many questions for future investigations such as what repercussions can the defense of private security in which justice are taking justice in their own hands can have?
On the other hand, Alessandro Baratta, (2005) finds that the best solution to combat crime and violence consists of a combination of all possible alternatives. Alessandro Baratta proposes a model that integrates both perspectives and considers the following conditions important: the application of legality against the impunity of officials and individuals, the participation of citizens in security plans and programs, the priority of strategiesSocial aimed at improving the standard of living of citizens, the collaboration of citizens and the police, the definition and application of citizen security plans together between civil society and government.(Baratta, 2005).
For Baratta they are not prevention policies or control policies, by themselves, the best options. An alternative that has been rehearsing in several countries is the citizen organization to combat crime, which seeks an informed participation by members of the company for the elaboration of security plans and programs, as well as to determine the priorities ofaction.
Zúñiga Elizalde in Mexico, (2012) analyzed how violence against women in public spaces is manifested, called by the “Community Violence” law, in four states in the northwest zone of Mexico (Baja California, Baja California Sur, Sinaloaand Sonora). He considers that in all the spaces analyzed, women live violence or are facing the risk of experiencing it, a situation that has been aggravated by the climate of insecurity that prevails in the region for some years, marked by the war of andagainst drug trafficking. In addition, that infrastructure and urban equipment are the main factor that influences the use of public spaces by women. The abandonment and possible lack of maintenance of parks, gardens and squares make their habitability and enjoyment make.
The investigation was based on a qualitative methodology. In qualitative the subjects who live violence were studied, in this case women. For which they used two tools: the discussion or focal group and the interview (individual and group). To achieve an approach with greater depth in the subjectivity of women who live violence, three populations were also selected to analyze them as studies in case. The author found that most women in the area feel and perceive as others within the public space. Being visible as bodies of desire or outrage and invisible as subjects of rights, which seek to appropriate public space as a place for the exercise of their freedom as citizens.
As well as for Baratta (2005), Fuentes Romero (2005), Zuñiga and. (2012) and Massolo (2005) consider it importantDecrease rates of violence within cities and with this guaranteeing a safe life for women, girls and children. Romero and Massolo Fuentes agree to include women in the design of cities.
In Mexico, Torres Falcón, (2005) identified the living conditions of women in the country regarding political laws, as well as an analysis of the differences and inequalities associated with the genre in the cultural, social, economic, economic,family. The author found that gender discrimination is verified in all aspects of everyday life, sometimes in a direct and forceful way, and many other subtle and almost invisible. Torres Falcón considers that legal framework to eradicate discrimination reproduces some of these elements by underlining the reproductive function of women and strengthening that traditional role so marked in gender roles.
With a quantitative methodology, he analyzed government policies and legislation regarding women’s rights, where he concludes that most of the laws guarantee women a life without violence in the private sphere, which means that in thePublic sphere women are vulnerable being exposed to different forms of violence, in which sexual harassment is in the main variant which is a clear expression of gender violence This happens different places in public sphere (the street, transportationpublic, different health, education equipment, and is mostly exercised by those who are in a higher hierarchical position). The author does not leave future questions or niches to investigate.
Cervantes, (2008) conducted an analysis of the situation of women in the state of ColimIn turn, identify an action platform for the incorporation of gender perspective in the design and execution of state public administration plans and programs.
The author found an unbalanced participation between women and men in the reworking of the social world, which has an impact on a decreased democratic legitimacy, both of the dynamics in the private sphere and in the public. In the diagnosis with respect to community violence (pushing, kicks kicking, murder attempt, aggressions with some type of object and shots), which women live in the state the author Colima occupies the third place in the group with 38.7% although it does not exceed the national average of 39.7% and the main fact is by intimidation.
It is worth mentioning that, despite this, the State of Colima is recognized as one of the states of the Republic with the best quality of life in the country (Government of State of Colima, 2007), however, there are states whose incidence of community violenceIt is inferior that the one reported for Colima. These data were analyzed with a quantitative methodology, based on various sources of statistical and sociodemographic information to analyze the female and male condition, and in conclusion the author considers that each community of this country must visualize the social changes with a gender perspective with a gender perspective.
Román Pérez, Cubillas Rodríguez, April Valdez, (2012) in Sonora, Mexico, made a diagnosis about the current situation regarding gender violence that women live in the state of Sonora. Román Pérez, Cubillas Rodríguez, April Valdez, found that although different laws have been approved in the state of Sonora for example: the law of access of women to a life free of violence that at the same time came out the creation of the State Prevention System, Attention, sanction and eradication of violence against women. Also, the law for the promotion of equality between women and men in the state of Sonora was approved and relevant actions have been carried out to promote the culture of the complaint and to improve the quality of the care that these cases receive.
The authors say that these have not been enough to eradicate gender violence, they consider it importantdifferent areas that develop. In addition, they also found that the most reported violence in women is community (rape, sexual abuse, street violence through insults or phrases alluding to the sexuality of women and intimidation) also includes the trial of trying topeople, forced prostitution, harassment and sexual harassment. "The spaces are diverse as recreation centers, means of transport, public via or any other" (Endireh, 2006).
The authors used a quantitative methodology that was based on the analysis regarding the National Survey of Household Relations (Endireh) 2016. This survey offers information regarding the experiences of violence of physical, economic, sexual, emotional and heritage, who have faced the 15 -year -old women in the different areas of their lives (as a couple, family, school, work and community). In addition, they consider it important. The authors believe that if knowledge about this phenomenon is generated, it is possible.
On the other hand, the Women’s Foundation and the Movement of Women Mélida Anaya Montes (Las Mélidas) of El Salvador (2017) recognized the inequality and discrimination suffered by women in El Salvador, so they developed a risk map, alreadywho considered that it is a tool close to the reality of women, which in their case could contribute to state security strategies, from a feminist gender perspective. They used a qualitative methodology from a participatory process of women, with the aim of sensitizing and identifying situations of risk, danger and acts of violence they face in their community. That in addition to having a diagnosis, it contains the recommendations and lines of action to respond to the main manifestations of violence against women in the study area.
Several phases were generated to reach the results, as already mentioned the basis of this research was the short relationship with the women of the area, involving the community and reflecting in each of the cases that were identified, with thisProject the information in the form of maps. In the maps, the dangers, the places of risk, the security areas, the location of the buildings, roads and streets, and field areas were indicated, mainly.
They found that in many situations violence is so generalized that the women themselves make visible that they are living it, or even justify it, women close to gang groups are not seen with the right to receive help, or ask for it, that is,They self-support. Thus finding that the main reason for this is the ignorance of complaints followed by the existing demotivation to make use of that right, due to the inability of most times, of the dependencies in the way they serve the women who face violence ofgender. Thus pending the way in which you can be certain that all women and girls have at hand the knowledge of their rights as citizens.
Concluding with the investigations of Torres Falcón, Cervantes, the Women’s Foundation and the Movement of Women Mélida Anaya Montes agree that women are living a situation of significant violence within the cities, marked by gender inequalities that exist. Analyzing the situation of women consider reflecting on the political laws that protect the right of women within cities.