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Violence, cause irrefutable of Colombian displacements and emigration
This essay will talk about how Colombia from the second half of the twentieth century entered into an economic, social and political decline that gave way to an increase in the number of emigrations, and how this situation has increased and it is believed that it will continue to increase;The situation of violence that has been experienced in Colombia will be shown which has made emigrations and displacements increase to find better living conditions, this due to the violence caused by the war than the country to suffered since the 60s, added to a bad public administration focusing from the governments of Belisario Betancur to the current government of Iván Duque, reducing the opportunities of a dignified life, which leads to emigration indices in an immeasurable increase to countries such as Spain, Venezuela and StatesJoined;and forced displacements from rural areas to urban areas.
For anyone, it has been a secret that in Colombia since the sixties to the present day there have been times of violence that have whipped and left a brand in our country. An era of indiscriminate violence was given for political reasons where liberals and conservative. Another era that marked its history was in the mid -80s where violence was bread of each day, where according to the viewer’s newspaper “the homicide rate rose from 25 to 79 per 100,000 inhabitants, and the kidnappings were common with something common withMore than 31 thousand kidnapped people, adding that at this time drug trafficking was in their splendor thanks to characters such as Pablo Escobar Gaviria and Gonzalo Rodríguez Gacha ”. Colombia was not a country where it was nice to live. Thanks to all this we begin to see a migratory wave to countries such as Venezuela, which was going through an economic boom which made it appealable due to the economic difficulties through which Colombia passed, says the report on migrations in the world 2010. The great oil activity of the neighboring country made it very attractive to Colombians, since this country required labor and offered better salaries compared to Colombia, it was also added that it was a country close to ours and with a similar language;According to the National Institute of Statistics of Venezuela (INE) in Venezuela in 1981, 508 were residing in their country.166 Colombians, which was equivalent to 47.3% of all immigrants in the country, for 2011 there were 684.040 which amounted to 60 %. Another place that Colombians emigrated was to the United States "the country of opportunities" where in the eighties there was a flexible migration policy for immigrants, although very expensive, so only the wealthy classes of the time could access.
Currently, emigrating to the United States is an option that many Colombians contemplate since the country’s conditions are better than those currently in Colombia, according to the newspaper El Espectador in 1994 in the United States they were residing 867.408 Colombians, but this is not easy to do, because in the time of the eighties where the drug trafficking was in its apogee Colombia obtained a very bad reputation, which currentHost country (United States) is not so flexible, remember that these permits to reside in this country are very selective and discriminate according to nationality, economic status and educational level;For a person with a higher educational level and a good economic income, it is much easier to get stay permits. For these reasons, many times people resort to illegality to reach these countries, and not only to the United States, we can also see it in European countries such as Spain that is also a favorite country for Colombian emigration, according to the Colombian census carried out in2005 23.3% of the total Colombian emigrants were residing in Spain. Thanks to the economic crisis that Colombia suffered between 1996 and 1999, growth can be observed in the number of people who decidedbetween 1999 and 2001 ”;according to the INE (National Statistics Institute) between 2001 and 2008 the number of immigrants with Colombian nationality in Spain step of 87.000 to 280.000. In 2018 the newspaper El Espectador based on INE data (National Institute of Statistics) says “Colombians lead the list of the foreign population resident in Spain among Latin American countries, the figure amounts to 394.038 ".
In 2019, the Spanish Ministry of Interior presents the increase in the number of Colombians who requested asylum, from 656 in 2016 and 2.504 in 2017 to 8.650 in 2018 and until May 31, 2019 they were 10.122. Because of this according to the newspaper El Espectador, the CEAR (Spanish Commission for Refugee Assistance) alert about growth in asylum applications by Colombians, attributing this to the "false peace" in the country.
But not only think that Colombians leave our country to achieve a better living condition, many do not have the resources or educational level to be able to reside legal or illegally in other countries, many Colombians, usually peasants are forcedto abandon their lands as a result of the internal conflict that the country has suffered, having to move from rural areas to urban areas in search of opportunities to be able to get their families forward and can survive. According to the newspaper El Espectador in one of his articles published in 2013 he says “To the Eastern bloc of this guerrillas (FARC) is responsible for 324.596 cases of forced displacement between 1997 and 2011 ”: According to the Single Victims Registry (RUV),“ the FARC has been responsible for 41% of cases of displacement ”and in a prosecutor’s report in 2013“ it is argued thatIn most cases, the mobiles of displacement were the fear and insecurity of the inhabitants in 91%, followed by concrete threats of the guerrillas, confrontation with public forces or the fear of a possible sexual aggression to their family ”. In 2018, the newspaper El Tiempo public an article in which it was reported that “with 7.7 million people displaced in 2017, Colombia returned to the country with more internal displaced people in the world, according to the annual report Global trends presentedThis Tuesday by the UN Agency for Refugees (UNHCR) ". But not only forced displacements are given to the FARC, Rcnradio on January 18, 2019, public an article in which the following was reported “at least 400 people were forced to leave their homes in the Catatumbo due to fighting betweenThe ELN and the Army, according to the UN Office for the Ocha (Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs) ”.
The country has been affected by actions perpetrated by different guerrillas, remember that during the mandate of Belisario Betancur in 1985 on November 6, 35 members of the M19 took the Palace of Justice by kidnapping more than 200 people. In the following presidential mandate, in the governed of Virgilio Barco Vargas there was a strengthening of paramilitary groups, terrorism and drug trafficking, and was seen how members of the UP Political Party (Patriot Union) were killed what would be known as Dirty War.