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The story of Rome is an essential source
From its foundation as a city in 753 to.C. Until the fall of the Roman Empire of the West in the year 476 D. C., The history of Rome is an essential source to understand Western culture. In the period of the Republic Roma manages to implement his political and military hegemony in the Mediterranean Sea. But Rome is not interested in dominating culturally, but adopts cultural elements of the provinces that dominates and provides own such as large public works (roads, aqueducts, etc.). This form of conquest is known as Romanization.
Civil wars and the growing extension of the territory of the Roman Empire needed social and political reforms. These reforms began with Julio César, but the real change occurs when Octavio Augusto is appointed emperor. With the power concentrated in the hands of the emperor and a Roman Pax imposed by the military force begins the splendor era of the Roman Empire.
The emperor is also a maximum pontiff and restores the official religion, but from the East new religious currents are introduced. Among them a small sect of Judaism, Christianity. Christianity will live between the 5 and III centuries between expansion and persecution. Little by little there is the urbanization of the population and a well -off bourgeoisie is consolidated, there are great economic inequalities with the plebs.
The emperor drives culture, but it is still necessary to move to Athens or Alexandria to study in philosophical schools. In the field of law a strictly Roman spirit develops, as well as in art at the service of public constructions. During the 1st century literature lives a moment of apogee with writers such as Virgilio, author of the Aeneid.
From the third century the empire begins its decline. Its borders are threatened by the permanent attacks of the Germans. To this we must add an excessive size of the empire, inner fragmentation and social crisis. Emperors such as Diocletian and Constantine begin reforms that seek to strengthen the army and restore the union between empire and religion to maintain the greatness of Rome. Christianity is seen as an enemy that hinders internal cohesion, and the State undertakes against it systematic persecutions, the most durable of which was that of Diocletian.
In the year 313 Constantino decides to tolerate Christianity as a religion more reflected in the Edict of Milan. In 380 Theodosius it declares it official religion of the Empire. The internal decline of Rome gives way to a new social order represented by Christianity, which has gradually established, after many internal discussions, the fee of faith and moral that will extend to the entire West.