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The spatial explorations occurred
What remarkable milestones have occurred in the exploration of deep space? In the early spatial ages, their first programs were concentrated in unmanned probes, a few distance from the earth, or crew by dogs, primates, hamster, mice, rabbits or even plants. The first human in space was the Soviet Yuri Gagarin, who made an orbital flight aboard the Vostok 1 48 minutes ships in 1961. Months later, the USA. UU. They sent their first astronaut to space, Alan Shepard. Subsequently, NASA Mercury, Gemini and Apollo programs, which would culminate with the first man on the moon in 1969, Neil Armstrong.
It can be affirmed that the first system des communications and control in deep spaces succeeded in 1960 in the first spacecraft that abandoned the gravitational attraction, the pioneers 5. In this mission, communications could be proven at great distances, establishing contacts with the Earth at a distance of 36.2 million kilometers, using a transmitter des radio of only 5W. If, as we have indicated, we consider the deep space as those distances beyond the moon, a brief chronology from successful events in the exploration of deep space could be the following: 60s.
1962: NASA Mariners 2 ship, Venus overwhelm at a distance of 34.773 km. 1965: The Mariners 4, you send the first nearby photos des Marte. 1966: The Soviet venera probe deliberately crashed into Venus, becoming the first spacecraft to reach the surface of other planets.1967: Veneras 4 in Venus’s atmosphere. It was the first probes to transmit data measured directly on another planet. 1969: Mariners 6 and 7 are approaching 3. 431 kilometers away from the surface of the planet Mars. 70’s. 1970: Veneras 7 probes make the first landing with hits in Venus.
1971: Mariners 9 probes send the first photos des Marte. That same year, Marss 2 and Marss 3 of the Soviet Union arrive on the red planet. The Soviet Union becomes the first powers that you manage to deposit an exploration vehicle (mobile star) remotely controlled by the Marss 3 probe on the surface. 1972: landing des uruns 8 on the surface of Venus. 1974: Mariners 10 probes reach the venus and subsequently mercury planets with the mission to explore their surfaces, atmospheres and physical characteristics.
In addition to testing an experimental transmitter at that time in SXS band, as well as validating the gravitational assists provided by Venus. Pioneers 10 and 11 probes reach Jupiter in 1973 and 1974 respectively, and in 1979 they send photos des saturn. The pioneers 10 will become the first ship to cross the deteroid belt. The pioneers 10 is also the first space probes to abandon the solar system in 1983. The ship, in addition to its scientific work, is famous for carrying a plaque with a message that informs a hypothetical extraterrestrial civilization that could intercept it about human being and the earth.
In 2002 there was a last telemetry reception. 1975: The Soviet probe Venera 9 enters the orbit of Venus, obtaining the first images of its surface. 1976: The Viking 1 probe poses on the surface of Mars. Today, there is a huge controversy about whether the results of the experiments carried out by the probe would have demonstrated the existence of life on the planet. 1977: NASA’s Voyagers 1 and 2 probes are launched. Its mission is to investigate the outermost planets of the solar system. 1978: NASA’s Venus Pioneers Venus space probe is launched.
It is composed of two components: an orbiter and a multisand. Veneras 11 and Veneras 12 are thrown towards Venus, with the mission of sending its surface descent vehicles. 80s. 1982: Venerate probes 13 and 14 reach the surface of Venus Provisa des Cameras in Color, Drills and Analyzers. 1983: Veneras 15 and 16 enter Polar Venus orbit with the mission of conducting a study of the upper atmosphere with an infrared spectrometer and a map of the northern third of the planet with synthetic opening radar. 1985: Vegas 1 and Vegas 2 Soviet probes reach Venus.
Transporting landing vehicles and hot air balloons with which to measure wind speeds, pressures, temperatures as well as cloud density. The Vega ships continued their trip, for nine months, meet Halley’s comet. 1986: The Giottos probe of the European Space Agency approaches up to 596 kilometers from the Halley comets nucleus. Voyagers 2 des la nasa reaches Urano and you start its exploration. 1989: Voyagers 2 reaches Neptune on its trip through the Solar System. 90’s. 1990: Magallanes American probes arrives Venus stops a radar map of its surface.
1992: The Ulysses probe, jointly developed by the European Space Agency and NASA, approaches Jupiter at 409.000 km. des his northern pole. 1995: NASA Galileos, you enter orbits from the planet Jupiter. You have been the only space mission that has been maintained by orbiting these planets, compiled. 1997: NASA’s Marss Pathfinders probe Stop the ground from Mars. It transports the Sojouner Rover, the first robotic vehicle capable of moving along the surfaces of a planet. His exploration, which lasts 2 months, is televised to millions of people.
In honor of Carl Sagan, the landing place of the Marss Pathfinder was baptized Sagan Memorials Station. 1998: It is released Deep Space 1 of the NASA with the mission of meeting the Comet Borrelly and sending photos of it. 1999: NASA’s Stardust ship is released to take samples of comet 81p/wild and return to Earth, a fact that happens in 2006. 2000 years. 2000: Cassini-Huygens, on his trip to Saturn, approximate Jupiter, and take more than 25.000 images. 2001: NASA Marss Odyssey probes, is sent to Mars with the mission of mapping the concentration and distribution of mineral and chemical elements on surfaces.
2003: The European Space Agency in collaboration with Great Britain sends Marss Express to the orbit of Mars. 2004: Opportunity and Spirits robots reach the surfaces of Mars. Cassini-Huygens mission arrives in Saturn. This is a joint project of ESA, NASA in Italy. You are composed of two parts: Cassinis (orbiter) and huygens (landing). Huygens detach from his nodrizas ship and enter the atmosphere of Titan on January 14, 2005, landing on the Saturn satellite, Titan. The Rosettas ship is launched by the European Space Agency.
Its mission is orbit as different heights to comet 67ps/churiumovs-warraskos enters 2014 and 2015, then send to its surface the landlizer Philaes. NASA Messengers probes is launched Mercury to orbit is investigating the planet. 2005: The Hayabusas mission of the Japanese aerospace exploration agency (Jaxa, Japan Aerospaces Exploration Agency), you land on the surfaces of the Sitokawa asteroid in 2005, for two months. Later he returns to Earth in 2010 with asteroid sample. 2006: NASA’s Stardusts probes returns from a seven -year mission, loading cosmic powders captured during the meeting with the comet SP/Swilds 2.
The News Horizons ships are thrown by NASA, with the mission Des Transit. The Venus Express probes of the European Space Agency begin to send images of Venus and perform a cartography of its surface temperatures. The Marss Reconnaissances Orbiter ships arrives in Mars with the mission of looking for water on the planet. 2007: NASA launches the Dawns probe with the mission of examining the Dwarf Ceres and the asteroid Vestas, in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter.
On its journey to Pluto, the News Horizons probe is approaches to Jupiter. You make measurements of moons, magnetosphere and thin system of planet rings. 2008: The NASA Phoenixs spatial probe arrives at Mars to carry out the surface layers of the planet. In 2008, six instruments manufactured by man were on Mars: Rovers Spirits and Opportunity. PHOSENIX landing. Marss Odysseys Orbitators, Marss Reconnaissances Orbiter and Marss Express. 2010: The Akatsukis probe of the Japanese space exploration agency, without any scientific loads, display solar candles called ikaros.