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The Social Security Institution from ancient times
The Social Security institution was born from the ancient times of the human being, when needing food, housing and dress, from the eventualities that were presented in nature. As well as the assumption of diseases, with the intention of being able to stay more years;Therefore, the individual had to ensure different contexts, since the dangers increased to the extent that he established socially at that time at this regard, Nugent, (1997), mentions that
In ancient Old World and American cultures, protection systems under certain risks were built, primarily in the attention of diseases, disabilities, accidents, defense injuries in war, funeral help and support for homeless elders, through mutual corporations, in order to be supportive of each other, or funded by the same individuals (p. 450)
The appointment indicates that in the primitive societies of America and the Old World, protection methods were designed, in order to face different situations presented in the human being such as accidents, diseases, among others that could affect the quality of life and health ofPeople, as well as situations in which these might feel unprotected, in order to help them.
Coming from this, more complex protection systems were established against various contingencies that disturbed the well -being of individuals. According to Rendón (1992, cited by Nugent, 1997) points out that
The historical training of the Social Security System has gone through three stages: one is the one that he names the particular actions of caution, which are: individual savings, mutuality, private insurance, public assistance and responsibility;another is that of social insurance;And the last one, the Social Security. (p. 606).
In this sense, the author indicates that social security over time has been divided into three parts, one that protects the individual and his economy, the other that deals with health and their assistance in hospitals and the third that is related toSocial Security, which concerns support in relation to pensions, health, housing among others. Kurczyn (1997), indicates that "the first stage of Social Security has begun since 1598, when the laws of poor that offered help to the needy population, a series of social assistance that integrated solidarity acts, non -profit" (without profit ”(p. 86), according to what is indicated by the author, the Social Security was born when creating the laws of the poor, which he considered in contributing people with less resources through assistance aids that provided him with those supports of which they lackedthrough associations that did not lucra with this.
Continuously, during the Industrial Revolution, individual savings began as an economic defense procedure, with the purpose of being able to solve future eventualities that endanger the well -being of people, primarily produced by the work done in their workplaces. For Bowen, (1992), it indicates that
In the mid -nineteenth century, the modality of mutuality arises, whose principle is to gather a group of people so that collectively and non -profit face the compensation of a certain number of social risks suffered by their members based on the fees that impose on theeffect on a kind of common background created for it (P. 27).
This appointment indicates how the mutual system arises, which is that a group of unprofitted people meet in order to compensate for a number of hazards in terms of social services that may have through payments that correspond toRates of the collective fund that was created.
However, the protection methods that were formed during the first stage were insecure and scarce economically to resolve the contingencies that the individual managed to have, substantially at work, because they did not enjoy any defense of defense. Subsequently at the following stages, the protection system is structured with greater complication, by display. As indicated by Sánchez (2012)
The first model is based on Social Security, made by Otto von Bismark made for the first time in Germany in the year of 1889, this model had the objective of protecting the well -being of workers from social risks, so it was paid by themthemselves and for its employers, the protection of this mandatory right examined insurance against diseases, accidents at work, disability and old age. The second model was developed at the end of the 19th century, began with the Law of Compensation of Workers, mandatory health insurance, unemployment insurance and contributing pensions for the elderly, widows and orphans;until reaching the Social Security Plan proposed by William Beveridge in 1942, where the main characteristic of his plan is an insurance project that covers all citizens, and not only those who work for patterns. This plan intended to be supportive and universal, offering a pension for old age, burial expenses, medical care, unemployment and disability, beneficiaries and their families, through a single weekly payment.
In summary, the appointment indicates that these copies soughtof social security that at the same time of their training were aimed at other countries for their execution and international organizations began to structure an ideal system of the same. According to the International Labor Organization (ILO, 2009) “In 1919, the ILO created the first Social Security Labor Agreement, which influenced that in 1927 the International Social Security Association (AISS) was created, with the objective ofPromote and develop Social Security ”, this event indicates the date on which an association was created in order to protect what is related to social security. In this sense, the United Nations Organization (UN, 1948), states that "in 1948, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights stipulated in article 22, the right to social security for any person who was a member of society", so that the appointment indicates how the UN later declares as a right of every human being social security for people within society.