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THE SCIENCE OF PSYCHOLOGY AS DISCIPLINE IN THE INDUSTRY
The present essay will focus on the subject of psychology as a discipline, for this the historical processes that it went through and the intervention that relevant characters had with their respective contributions will be reported, this from their birth as a branch of philosophy until its institutionalization. On the other hand, it will be deepened about the object of study that, when wanting to define it, has caused crisis over time in it and its passage from a purely subjective approach to one rather positivist and experimental, the respective theoretical analysis will also be carried out toThe methodology that this science uses. These last two aspects and the constant change they had, together with the debate that is still generated in this regard, will be essential to be able to clearly and correct what psychology is.
The objective of this essay is to publicize the importance of this discipline since psychology is a science that aims to recognize and make the person able to solve behavioral and cognitive problems by themselves aware of their understanding of the Statutethat acts in society, which requires deep knowledge about the psychic structures of personality, the psychological statutes of its development and thus improve its quality of life. This is why psychological sciences have acquired great importance from the social point of view.
By means. It also wants to make known how psychology is related to the subjective part of the individual, it will also be related to the discipline to other sciences for a better understanding, the importance of such discipline for society in collective and individual contexts will also be demonstrated. This project will help clarify the knowledge that is already possessed, so that students are clear about the historical and theoretical part of this science, its object of study and methodology. For this, they will be worth research tools such as the interview.
For Zurama Monroy (2013), professor at the Faculty of Psychology of UNAM, the first Psychology steps from a philosophical approach occur with Socrates and Plato who referred to the term ‘soul’ or psyche (which would later be the first objectof study of psychology) and to the issues of spiritual life. Plato considered that the causes of behavior went back to the ‘type’ of soul that each being carried, distinguishing three of them: rational, irascible and appetitive. In the seventeenth century through philosophy, which assumed the task of baseing the knowledge produced by the nascent modern science, conceptions that involved both epistemological and psychological issues are created. Thus, these foundations made possible or prevented the psychological aspects from obtaining the specificity necessary to become an independent discipline.
Descartes used doubt as a methodical resource and then, found the first solidly established principle, ‘I think, then I exist’ that opens the way to study one of the mental processes (studied by psychology) essential and that distinguish the animal of the human being from the human beingas is thought. In addition, it establishes a distinction or separation between body and soul, but that does not deny its interaction and argues that the psychological cannot be an object of scientific study (such as the physical world), but moral. In sum, Hobbes and Locke, highlighted the role of experience in human knowledge. Locke with his empiricist current believed that all the information about the physical world happens through the senses, and that the right ideas can and should be verified with the sensory information from which they proceed.
Subsequently, he wanted to consider psychology as a science, using the physiology of Johannes Muller studying the sensory experience, Gustav Develop developing experimental methods to measure the intensity of sensations and relate it to that of the physical stimuli that provoked them and Wundt inHis vôlkerpsychologie (1900-1920) considered that: Psychology was between the natural sciences (Naturwissenschaften) and the Social Sciences (GeisteSwissenschaften) and in 1879 he founded in Germany, city of Leipzig the first psychology laboratory, establishing it as an experimental science,taking as an object of study the mental processes of the human being. Likewise, doctors, concerned about mental illnesses, also contributed to the development of modern psychological theories, among which the name of Sigmund Freud, who developed the research and treatment method known as psychoanalysis. Already in the twentieth century, there is the birth and impulse of psychological currents such as behaviorism founded by Watson and driven with certain modifications by Skinner. What opened the discussion about the true object of study of psychology, placing the subjective of the human being or on the contrary, the merely observable.
Psychology, word from the Greek "psyche" that means soul and "logos" that is treated or study, defines as its object of study psychological processes, mind, behavior and behavior and behavior. His study includes all aspects of human behavior, from brain functions to the individual’s behaviors, in itself the entire development and evolution that human being has had in different stages of life from the moment of birth to his death. Psychology focuses on the emotions of the human being, on subjectivity (as in the beginning), in how he interprets, thinks and learns from everything that surrounds him, also in how he learns the form of interaction with other individuals or group and howIt is their development with them.
Psychology is a discipline that has different study air and this is possible because in all areas of human life behavior manifests, that is, in all areas the person: thinks, reason, acts, feels and that is whythat all human behaviors can be analyzed. The behavior can be explained and modified according to the learning laws that have been studied based on experiments. Indeed, psychology is based on the scientific method to find answers. He was born as a branch of philosophy because he adapts ideological positions and some prototypes for the study of human behavior. Psychology executes the investigation of all manifestations, psychic and behavioral activities of the human being with all its interactions in the environment where it lives, in order to adapt, reach an emotional balance and achieve good mental health. The theoretical analyzes of psychological sciences would be a generalization, a methodology based on observation, which can be carried out through the survey, experimentation and have characteristics that allow us to obtain good results within the research. To achieve good research in psychology, we also need to interpret, analyze, collect, validate that the data is descriptive, explanatory, qualitative, quantitative, etc. In this way, the relevant studies are carried out on what we want to investigate and due clarity about the discipline raised.
"The experimental technique is the methodology of psychology, it is a way to contrast the hypotheses through experiments, the main characteristic of this technique is that the researcher can manipulate and control the independent variable as agreed, to find out this relationship" (Badia, 2015). In this way, the research has an established design, a rubric of how this scientific research will be prepared, the subjects are established in the experimentation, the procedures that will be carried out, to the mathematical studies (surveys) forobtain statistical data and thus provide excellent results. On the other hand, it is intended to reach new knowledge, in such a way that it can be investigated and discussed about the research that is given throughout what is now known as psychological sciences. There are other methods such as: Correlational: which explains that there may be a case that there is no hypothesis within the experiment since it cannot be manipulated, for example intelligence, rather a comparative technique would be used to achieve answersThat the researcher needs, the other method known as observational: in charge of studying, verifying and verify.
On the other hand, the field method occurs within the natural environment or as its name says it within the field and the experimental method is based on the fact that the researcher has previous knowledge about the topics to be treated, it has greater control of everything thanIt is raised in the research raised, this technique allows to control the events that will be given at that time. With these inquiries, results will be obtained through which it can be deducted whether or not the hypotheses proposed and thus be completed and the investigation will be concluded.
In conclusion, the psychology considered the science that studies the behavior and mental processes of the individual occurs in an individual way by the fact that the subject’s behavior and attitudes are better observed, through his scientific method. This is established as a science for the use of experimentation that yields verifiable and verifiable results.
The contributions of psychologists, philosophers, physiologists and sociologists have been very useful for the institutionalization of psychology as a discipline. Without them, this science would have not had foundations to establish itself as such. In spite of this, its object of study has not been able to establish at all, since if it focuses on the subjectivity of the individual as it was initially, it would cease to be science because it would not be experimental or verifiable, instead when looking for itsscientific through the study of the mental processes and behaviors of the individual, can continue to be maintained as such. The importance of psychology is due to the fact that in this today.
- Munray, Z. (2013). Didactic Support Text: History of Psychology. UNAM Faculty of Psychology. Obtained from: http: // www.psychology.UNAM.MX/DOCUMENTS/PDF/PUBLICATIONS/HISTORY_DE_PSICOLOGIA_UNITIES_1_2_Y_3_ALVAREZ_DIAZ_Y_MONROY_NARS.PDF
- Department of Health Psychology (2007). Basic Psychology: Introduction to Psychology. Obtained from: https: // rua.UA.ES/DSPACE/BITSTREAM/10045/4298/1/THEME%201_Introduction%20a%20LA%20PSICOLOGY%C3%8DA.PDF
- Ortego M, López S & Álvarez M. (s.F). Psychosocial Sciences I: Topic 1. Psychology as a science that studies behavior. University of cantabria. Obtained from: https: // ocw.Unican.It is/pluginfile.PHP/1420/Course/Section/1836/Topic_01.PDF
- Badia, l. (2015). Psychology-online. Retrieved on May 8, 2019, from psychology-online: https: // www.Psychology-online.com/el-metodo-in-psychology-scientific-2095.HTML