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The Romans created a great empire
The Romans created a great empire, with a common civilization that links their inhabitants with each other and around the Mediterranean Sea. In this way the idea of a universal empire was specified. The Roman civilization, together with the Greek they will form the basis of the Western civilization to which we belong. From Latin the leagues arise: Spanish, Portuguese, French, Italian, Roman law left its legacy in the laws of Western countries even in ours, in addition to the conception of urban space.
Rome represents another important pillar of Western civilization. In fact, this civilization came to the language, law and public works. A fundamental conquest of Rome was the unification of the Mediterranean basin, both from the political point of view (creation of the universal state) and cultural.
Rome is located in the central part of the Italic Peninsula, which is in the center of the Mediterranean Sea. The city is located in the Lacio region, on the banks of Río Tiber. According to archaeological data, the origin of the city of Rome seems to be in the Latin villages established in the seven hills surrounding the Tiber River.
The strategic importance of the area explains that they were soon dominated by their powerful neighbors, the Etruscans. The first form of government that had the city of Rome was the absolute, elective and life monarchy. Since power concentrated on a person, he was elective (the king was chosen) and life (he lasted his entire life).
The king acted with the collaboration of a Senate, which was formed by the leaders of the oldest families (gens) in the city of Rome, called patricians. This organ chose the king, and it was the only government institution that was the entire history of Rome. An assembly also collaborated in the government, called cured elections, which was also made up of the privileged class of the city.
Italy was populated by the ligures and slices, but in the second millennium to.C. Different waves of Indo -European or Italics arrived, the Latinos being one of the most important peoples, located in the lace. They were humble peasants and shepherds who lived small cabins scattered in the place that would later occupy the city of Rome. These first settlements rose on seven hills, since the plain area was frequently full of mud due to the floods of Tiber. Later, the growth of the villages made its limits more and more imprecise and the relationships between them intensified.
In the 10th century to.C, the Etruscans arrived, which were located in Toscana and organized in cities-states, governed by Reyes. These tried the political unification of Italy, dominated from the Po river to Capua. They founded Rome on the Tiber River (Lacio Region), towards the seventh century to.C to which they called Rumòn (Ciudad del Río). The Greeks settled in the south, from the seventh century to.C and gave the name of Magna Greece to this region, spreading their culture.
Knowing the data offered. The Romans considered the fact that Rome had peasant ancestors and that on top, was conquered by a superior town, the Etruscans. That is why the poet Virgil and the historian Tito Livio will unify the different stories that talked about Romulo and Remo, and will make an official story.
What is a legend? A legend is a story that is transmitted by oral or written tradition, which combines real elements with imaginary or wonderful elements.
Concluded the Trojan War, Prince Trojan Aeneas, who was the son of Aphrodite (goddess of love) with a mortal, fled defeated and reached the region of Lacio, where his descendants founded the city of Alba Long. In the seventh century to.C Numitor reigned there, but his brother Amin.
However, the god Mars (God of war) fell in love with her and her union was born two twins: romulus and romulus. Amulio commanded them in the Tiber, but the person in charge of doing them instead of killing them the shot, in a basket to the river that ends on the shore. A wolf breastfeed them until a pastor found them and care of them. When they grow up they knew their origin, they defeated Amulio and returned the throne to their grandfather in 753 to.C, their grandfather granted them a hill where they founded Rome near the place where they were breastfed by the wolf. Then Romulo Mato A Romulo because he does not respect the limits of his territory and became king.
To populate the newly created city, Romulo accepted all kinds of fugitives, refugees and uprooted from neighboring cities, of Latin origin. The colony was formed mostly by men, but to build a city, women were also needed. They then put their eyes on the daughters of the Sabinos, who lived the neighboring chirinal.
The Latinos organized a great party, with cars and banquets races, and when the sabinos were ebios for the wine, they kidnapped their women and in turn threw the men. The bewildered and nervous women were notified that they would not harm them and that they simply wanted them to get married with the Romans and have children, this in order to populate the city of Rome.
Of course, this action enraged the sabinos, who decreed the war. For the rescue of the sabinas, they chose Tito Lacio, king of the sabinos. This, while studying how to cross the wall, met a young woman named Tarpeya. The young woman promised the enemy monarch that she would show her a hidden route that led to the Capitol (where the Latin fortress was), in exchange for what he carried in the left arm, alluding to a gold bracelet of the king. Indeed, the Sabinos reached the city thanks to the indications of Tarpeya, but instead of giving him his bracelet, King Sabino ordered his men to crush the traitor with his shields, who carried, precisely, in the left arm.
The sabino and Latinos will face the battlefield. At one point in combat, the sabinas got out of the contestants, hugging their husbands and family’s neck, to beg them to stop the fight. Well, if the sabinos won, they would lose their husbands, and if Latinos won they would have to cry the death of parents and brothers. So that the opponents deposed the weapons and signed the peace.
With this legend illustrated the Romans that their city was born from the union of two villages: Latinos and Sabinos, to which a third element soon joined: the Etruscans, a very advanced town, which populated the current Tuscany and that possessed important interestsCommercial in the Lacio Region.
In the sixth century to.C The Romans freed themselves from Etrusca domination and the monarchy comes to an end, the Republic emerged. It was called Republica Patricia because the political positions in the Senate and the magistrates were in the hands of the patricious. The patricians: were the descendants of the families (gens) that had founded the city (parents of the city). They were the privileged of society. They were the only ones who had political, religious and military rights. They possessed the best lands. They were the ‘people of Rome’
The commoners: were the peasants, artisans or merchants. They were free men, but they lacked political rights, they also had to pay taxes and possessed the worst land. They were forbidden to marry people from the Patricia class, and slaves could be left for debt.
Slaves: They were mainly slaves for debt and some prisoners of war.
Republic: representative form of government in which sovereignty resides in the people.
In Latin it means all publicity of all.
In the beginning it was called the Patricia Republic because the patricians had the political positions (they made up the Senate, occupied the magistrates or occupied the 2 charges of consuls that replaced the king).
Between the centuries and III AC there were Patricio- plebeyas struggles.
It will be at the expense of long struggles that the commoners came to conquer the rights that the patricians denied them.
The situation of commoners worsened in parallel to the process of expansion of Rome by Italy. The patricians required greater resources for this conquest in both expenses and men;To do this, taxes increased and summoned the commoners to participate in the army.
Since the 5th century, the commoners faced the patricians claiming equal rights, for this they took the need for the patricians for the integration of the army. In the year 493 AC when returning from the victorious campaigns of conquest by Italy, the plebeian soldiers of the army settled on the Mount Sacro a few kilometers from Rome, pressing the patricians with the idea of forming a new city. Senate members realizing the severity of the case decided to yield to the claims of the commoners.
The conquests of the plebe could well be synthesized in:
The drafting of the common law for all that would receive the name of law of the twelve tables. His name derives from the twelve bronze tables in which they were recorded and exhibited in the forum. With them they got the right to be public and the same for all citizens. The authorization of marriages between patricians and commoners that until then was prohibited. This law gradually led to the new rich of the plebs with the ancient patricians.
Prohibition of slavery by debts, which was complemented by the distribution of state lands, obtained after Roman conquests by Italy.
Finally, obtaining political rights, with the recognition of annually choosing two representatives: the tribunes. It was defenders of the plebe. Also the creation of the assembly of the plebe where they would deal with its problems.
These rights did not benefit the entire common. While the law was the same for all from now on, the economic situation marked on the one hand the poor or medium-sized plebe. This social group was a new leader aristocracy;Only they could access him, since he was still free and with important expenses derived from the electoral acts (paying customers for the vote). Rome was governed by a republic that historians called plutocratic.