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The rivalry between Iran and Saudi Arabia
Sectary violence in the Muslim world: Ideological rivalry between Iran and Saudi Arabia during and after Arab spring, a specific case of the Middle East with emphasis on Syria Research question: What have been the geopolitical consequences linked to the ideological-religious differences,from Iran and Saudi Arabia during and after the Arab spring, specifically in the Syrian case? Given the nature of the historical, ideological and diplomatic relations of Saudi Arabia and Iran it is possible to find geopolitical consequences on the regional stage of the Middle East linked to the relationship of these two actors during and after the Arab spring.
In turn, they can account for specific war conflicts that arose in this temporality as is the case of the Syrian Civil War. Near elements to elaborate: Saudi Arabia Bilateral Relationship- Iran during the twentieth century. Ideological Division from the Iranian Revolution of 1979. Arab Spring. General panorama and focused conflicts. Chapter 2: This chapter is a historical compilation that seeks to lay the basis for the subsequent analysis that corresponds to the research topic;This is why the first part of this section will focus on glimposing the most important precepts and divisions of the Islamic religion that will be relevant to make a connection with Chapter 3.
Also throughout Chapter 2, it is intended to generate an integral panorama of the relationship between Saudi Arabia and Iran during the twentieth and twenty -first century, emphasizing the ideological division that took relevance from the Iranian revolution of 1979 and finallywill make a chronological review of the events that happened during the Arab spring. Generalities of Islamic religion. Religious sectarism plays an extremely important role in the development of geopolitics in the Middle East, emphasizing the Islamic religion that is crucial to understand the actions of most actors on the regional stage.
In the specific case of this research, Islamism and its internal divisions have generated friction throughout contemporary history, especially during Arab spring. It is crucial to understand the ideological divisions within Islam to be able to bring them closer to the nations that use these separations as a flag for their interests. First, Islamism should be defined from a brief historical-religious count. Islam is defined as a monotheistic religion based on the Sacred Book of the Qur’.
The preaching of this religion began in the year 622 in Mecca, which is located in what is now known as Saudi Arabia and that initially extended under the leadership of Muhammad, the followers of this religion are calledMuslims. It is necessary to capture the macro data of this religious ideology to understand the scope and relevance that it has around the world, it is the second largest religion and covers 25% of the world’s population, representing their followers the population majority in 50 countries. However there is an internal division within Islam that has generated social disturbances throughout history.
And that since the last century this separation has been used for more political and strategic ideological purposes as it can be noted in focused conflicts during and after Arab spring. The Sunni Branch of Islam is considered the most orthodox and traditional, the Muslim majority represent and its tradition refers to the practices derived from the prophet Muhammad and its followers, one of the main differences with the Shiite counterpart is that Sunni religious leaders and mastersThey have been strongly controlled by the State, while Chiitas practice a more open and constant interpretation of Islamic sacred texts.
The ideological division within Islam finds its roots in the death of the prophet Muhammad. The death of the "last prophet" was extremely important because his legacy was the acceptance and agglomeration of basically all Arab tribes, in a kind of confederation known as the "ummah", the Arab nation. The majority of their followers thought that the other members belonging to the elite of the Islamic community were responsible for choosing their successor, however, a minority group believed that the position should only be preserved within the Muhammad family itself, that is,, the place should be from the cousin and son -in -law of Muhammad, Ali.
This is why this group of Ali followers (in Arabic Shiat Ali) are known as Shiites. The dispute for the succession of the "throne" of Muhammad was resolved with the entry of Abu Bakr as the first caliph of the Islamic community, imposed by the Sunni faction;However, Ali became the fourth Caliph after his predecessors were killed. Muhamm’s death also left a lot of money and power in dispute, his followers having these two great opportunities on his side expanded an empire that expanded from Central Asia to Spain.
However, various key milestones can be identified to understand the constant discrepancies between Sunni and Chiitas. The first great contest between these branches of Islam finds its origin in the battle of Karbala, in which the heir of Ali, Hussein, traveled from Mecca to Karbala (currently Iraq) to face the Caliph Yazid of the Ummayad dynasty, because thisI was accused of corruption. A ten -day battle was generated that Hussein finally lost, was shot and his head taken to Damascus as a tribute symbol to Caliph Sunita. Hussein’s martyrdom in Karbala became the central history of the Shiite tradition.
And it is commemorated annually as Ashoura, the most solemn date of the Shiite calendar. Another important events to understand the division is the emergence of the Safávida dynasty in the 16th century, which transforms Iran of a center of vital cultural importance for the Sunni faction in the Chiita fortress of the Middle East. In addition to this, the division of the old Ottoman Empire by the victorious forces of World War I approached ideological frictions, since the division went through religious and ethnic communities hundred and ethnic communities. For the twentieth century, the growing politicization of Islam.
The birth of fundamentalist radicalization in both religious roots were increasing sectarian tensions and that reached their maximum point during the Islamic Revolution of 1979, which would resume more depth in subsequent lines. The last important dividing point between Sunni and Chiitas is found in the early 21st century, in the middle of the chaos that generated the two wars of the Persian Gulf and the expulsion of Saddam Hussein backed by the US. UU., The change of ideological regime in Iraq and massive surveys during Arab spring.