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The Renaissance and the Artistic Movement
To appreciate the changes that took place between these two times regarding art, we will begin by knowing Romanesque art, from the Sainte Foy Autory church later the Renaissance art, represented by the Christ sustained by an angel, of Antonello. The Romanesque sculpture is reflected at the entrance of the Sainte Foy Church, in order to remind the believers the resurrection of Christ and the final judgment, these United to the Pentecost message were the most popular themes of the Romanesque eardrums not only of this. The eardrum is the area between the lintel of the main door and the upper arch.
The reason for this location for sculpture, Honorio de Autun explains in his well -known book Gemma Animae, when he referred to the functions performed by the sculptures in the eardrums of the churches: “They are made for three reasons; First, to be read by the laity; secondly, for the building to be adorned with those decorations; And thirdly, as a memory of the life of our predecessors.”H. Autum. At that time no believer escaped the fears of condemnation and this led to the pilgrimage, after which the pilgrims expected a reward from heaven.
All these factors contributed in many ways to the general morals and the prosperity of the monasteries. The state of conservation of Romanesque work shows us surviving fragments of color, which give us an idea about the original color of the stone, something that, although we are rare was a common practice then. The organization of the eardrums used to show in the center Jesus Christ enthronized in the mandorla with the position of Christ in the final judgment. On the right side of Christ is the side of the chosen ones, where peace and order reigns. Here are the figures of the Santa Fe, Patron Sines of the Church and its abbot.
And builder leading by the aged emperor Carlos, since the work always used to manifest the promoters of their realization in the form of sculpture also. However, left hand as a mirror of human vices describes the punishment of the condemnation of hell. In the middle of the vicious devils in that world of chaos, Satan is located on a throne. In the balance where souls are weighed a devil tries to imprison the archangel Miguel, to condem.
And among those convicted are also two priests, a bishop who bought the position of him and a wasteful abad, showing the punishments they have faced for their bad behavior before God. The harsh scenes that are shaped in this eardrum brings us closer to the demonic world of faith during the Middle Ages, when piety and fear of punishment balanced a balance between good and evil. The message of this eardrum, awakens fear and hope to anyone who contemplates it, fear of the final judgment and hope for the mercy of God, the intercession of the Virgin Mary and the help of the angels, the saints and the martyrs.
The image of Christ as the judge is a clear notice for the infidels, but the image of him also provides the certainty of his victory before the forces of evil, transmitting the message that the world is not yet lost. Romanesque art, according to Maria Ángeles Curros, in her book the language of Romanesque images, had its origin from the technical conquests made by art schools emerged in the Roman Empire of the West. It can be considered a symbiosis of the Roman tradition and the oriental contributions received through Byzantium and the Arabs. His start date was the first third of the eleventh century
Coinciding with the general idea that the world would end in the year 1000, the famous "millenary terror". But when such a catastrophe never happens, in thanksgiving for it the world was filled with sanctuaries. To this feeling of gratitude we must add the birth of trade and the consolidation of a certain political stability, factors that contributed to the realization of the Burgos or medieval cities and for the construction of the Romanesque churches. This artistic style has uniformity throughout Europe that is undoubtedly due to the influence of monastic orders.
Benedictine reform contributes powerfully to the unification of life. The Benedictine reform has its origin in the monastery of Cluny at the beginning of the 10th century; Its rule will end up imposing itself on almost a thousand abbeys disseminated throughout the West, which facilitates the dissemination of this new style. In this style we find decorative elements; vegetables (palm leaves, vine, flowers, role -playing), geometric (chess, canecillos, zigzag, feast.), Anomalistic (León, Arpías Bichas, Sirruk demons) and Human (Biblical-Historic characters, Old and New Testament narratives, dogmas).
All this shows us the religious symbolic world, the deeply believer and theocentric world of medieval Europe whose message we have to perform. The merit of the Romanesque sculptor is to have taken this sculpture often to be an integral part of the temple, giving it monumental proportions. Renaissance painting, expressed in the work of "Dead Christ sustained by an angel" whose author is the Italian painter Antonello da Messina. Which reflects in his work all the techniques learned from flamenco influences, which allowed him to make these paintings in oil and temper on table, never before known in the art world.
Specifically this work was painted around 1475-76. This painting shows us in front of an enlightened landscape, with green meadows and round glasses, an crying angel holds dead Christ. The figures are provided, as the main characteristic of Renaissance painting, unlike Romanesque that did not follow proportionality. In this work Christ is represented in a proportionate way, following the classical anatomy. The body is naked, covered by the modest cloth and the wound of the side is seen, from which a trace of blood comes out. In the left hand you see the wound of the nail.
There is no expression of pain in the face of Christ, but serenity; But in that of the angel who holds him, marked his children’s face in a slight expression of crying. This dramatic image of the foreground clashes with the quiet landscape of the background. In the meek landscape green olive trees are observed in the background; But, in contrast to this tree, skulls are distinguished and some erect dry trunk that contrasts with the surrounding green and the city in the background. This is a clear symbolism that represents or alludes to Mount Calvary (from Latin, or Golgotha in Aramaic and κρανιου τοπος in Greek, whose meaning is always skull).