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The "Politics" and the thought of Aristotle
Politics is one of Aristotle’s great philosophical works as well as Nicomáquea and Metaphysics ethics;Even so, "political" along with other writings of this figure were only fragments of technical notes written by which to date they were transcribed by different authors and editorials, but the essence and point of what Aristotle explains is not lost. Keep in mind that this work was written near the years 335 and 322 to.C and the issues that explains are in relation to what lives at that time, we must not criticize the ideals that he manages, rather we have to learn what written and compare it with our current, but in the same way they have a lot of similarity to thesocial actions that we live today, that is what politics does a text worth analyzing.
Man is a political animal, Aristotle had a vision of the world where the human being is another animal, man differs from animals, among other things, because he lives in politically organized societies with the aim of achieving the common good: theCitizens’ happiness. For him, a perfect state is that in which each person can, thanks to the laws taught, practice virtue as well as possible and ensure the happiness already mentioned, adopting the path that seems better, dividing these joys into three different classes: Those who are outside our person, property of the body and the assets of the soul (the most important).
According to ships (2002) civil society designates the diversity of people who with a category of citizens and generally collectively, these act to make decisions in the public sphere that consider every individual who is out of government structures;Aristotle designates that the State is made up of an association of families that tend to a common good and these usually do things that are fine for them, they categorize with different classes where the father represents the authority and the slave helps him exercise it through designated worksBy himself. He affirms that there are men who were born to obey and others to send;Which today is true, although we are all born with different possibilities is to progress in our lives.
The State is formed from a territory which part of it must be carved and worked to get the most out of the forest and mining exploitation of it;The political community where naturally a population forming with the people and the association of many peoples make the State form, it reaches its last form when it is able to be sufficient to itself. Mexico is a democratic country, our organization is currently determining the people, choosing our rulers and representatives to carry out a “better administration” of the country, for Aristotle, this cannot be, since citizens are naturally equal, sothat everyone must have the same power;According to this idea, the regime that is most accommodated is one in which the rulers withdraw from the power in which they have been unequal, in shifts. While Plato emphasizes that it is not possible that in a community they send everything at once, even the speech that is convenient to have people established in power to establish a better direction of the State itself. From here we are still a very important issue that covers different sections of the book that are the forms of government which author divides as:
- Democratic: It is not the current meaning of democracy, democracy is a form of government within another, in which the people governs, it makes it possible to consist of the equality that the poor do not have preeminence about the rich, neither one class or another has thesovereignty, but both are at the same level. Democracy as a form of government is viable, but it has a perversion that is demagogy .
- Aristocracy: It is a system of government where the nobles, the "virtuous", people who have considered that these people who have characteristics to govern to govern. Like the form of democratic government it has a disadvantage and in this case it is the oligarchy
- Monarchy: It is a form of government where the supreme position of a State is life and is generally designated through a hereditary order. This political ideology has as a consequence that all power will fall into just one person who may not be virtuous, in bad decisions the State can fall, but Aristotle indicates that if that monarch is virtuous this can carry excellent administration of the territory. As well as in the past 2 forms of government is prevention, in this it exists and is called tyranny . Throughout our history we live this and more types of government, of which many have learned with the help of history to try not to repeat the events that occurred.
Education in the perfect city
The education of the people in a state is essential, currently in Mexico only 16% of young people and adults have at the least finished degree level, the philosopher dictates that education must be the same for all, without high or casualties while therest of society will be in charge of providing education. What should society learn from those times?, useful knowledge of first necessity, although not all;because it is clear that the citizen must assume those disciplines that do not debase to the one who deals with them, considering those disciplines and trades that make man incapable in his soul, in his body or his intelligence for practice and acts of virtue,All trades that can deform the body, as well as the works where you get paid, because they deprive leisure to death and degrade it.
The perfect city in addition to operating excellent systematically, must be supported with educated people, in order to reject the possible perversions of governments;The primordial subjects that according to Aristotle should be used to teaching range from linguistics sciences such as reading and writing, the practice of gymnastics, this stimulates the value and makes mind and body work (it must be adapted to the age of the apprentice), The teaching of music and the appreciation of it, sometimes the drawing which is said to have many useful applications for the realization of the life of those who practice it. The book specifies these types of disciplines which many of them are necessary to learn them today, but we must understand that we are seeing a point of view of more than 2000 years ago and the needs were very different in those remote times, thetimes change and needs too.
Training of the Republic:
The Republic is an organizational system of the State where government exercise falls on one or more people, chosen by popular or parliamentary vote, for limited periods of time, to represent the interests of citizens Martínez (2017). For Aristotle to form the Republic we must take into account 3 important principles:
- The characters common to the legislation of each.
- Combine both systems, taking elements of both laws.
- Take the average term of what they say one and the other system.
Taking Mexico as an example, our country is a republic, only that 2 more concepts, representative, federal and democratic republic are attributed to it, the word republic is linked to the representative word because it is not possible that all citizens will make elaborate and discuss thelaws we want. Then, a republic is representative when the laws are prepared through elected representatives of the people. Our country has representatives of the people are those who will meet in an assembly to prepare or modify the laws. These institutions that we know today are the Congress of the Union, this is where we enter the issue of the Constitution.
Campos (2007) says that the Constitution is a coded text of a legal-political nature, arising from a constituent power, which has the purpose of constituting the separation of powers, defining and creating the constituted powers. The Constitution gives life to the State, according to Aristotle nothing is above it, except the gods. But in every place there is a class that does not know how to obey any authority but only to send another that does not know how to send for all this, the city aspires to compose certain elements in the same way that it is possible. The government of the middle classes, as it also mentions in Nicomáquea ethics, either any of the 3 forms of government, he prefers the middle classes as average among the population, since this type of people does not want to obtain more, they do not seekThe power itself, but this class does not want to be poor economically speaking, artisans, blacksmith farmers etc. The city should be based on this more than any other class, this class is the one with the greatest stability, because they do not covet or coveted and in those territories where the middle class is more increasing than the others is difficult for bad features to occur betweenThe citizens themselves, thus preserving the order within the city.
Analyzing this work sometimes leads to a great job because it is not a linear book, suddenly skip to very searching situations and topics, but reading at the same time from its respective compression you have just combined ideas. It can be concluded that Aristotelian thinking presents 2 different points of view where it puts as a reference and takes some ideologies of Plato, its teacher while it was supported by opinions taught by Socrates, the good man and the good citizen are the same thing and the endof the State is to produce the highest moral type of human being. The science of politics according to Aristotle understood both the knowledge of the political, absolute and relative good, and that of political mechanics, which was used for a purpose with bad intentions. This perspective of the concept of political philosophy that constructs these thinkers constitutes the Aristotelian.