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The Pacific War, Chile in search of power
The nineteenth century has been pointed out in multiple ways, for example, "a lost century" by Carlos Contreras, "a century to drift" by Heraclio Bonilla and even as a "dark century" by Teresa Vergara, without a doubt this has been oneOf the most questioned centuries, and it is not for less since within this they gave way to new commercial methodologies and has conflicts through the territory with great economic potential due to the presence of the guano, such as “Atacama and Antofagasta, located between theBorders of Bolivia and Chile, this product was highly valued within the so-called “Boom” Guanero (1841-1879) since I provide satisfactory economic income to Peru for being one of the most exported products “not only […] to England, but alsoTo France and its colonies, to Belgium, Italy, Holland, Germany, Spain, the United States, the Mauricio Islands, among other destinations ”(cite the compendium).However, between 1876-1879 in the Pardo government, it began to decline for both internal and external causes, so its decline in the 1876-1879 will be questioned, mainly influenced the defeat of Peru with Chile in theSo well-known war of "Pacific" (1879-1883). which was carried out after the fall of the guano.
Consequences of corruption
According to J.M. Rodríguez (cited in Taleseán, 2011, p.367) ”Unfortunately neither one or another were a reality, which accuses Malmilitary impotence, the administration during the period (1876-1879) that was in charge of Mariano Ignacio Pardo was a failure was a failure since not giving the correct use to the income he received for theGuano export, caused war, our army had neither men nor armament with which to face Chile.(Insert table, page. 367).And this because since the year “1869 Peru was disarm and the ruling classes preferred to invest in other sectors” (Burga, 1979 (cited in Tantaleán, 2011)), which shows that not only the decline of the export of the guanoFrom the Pardo government was what caused patriotic defeat, since this was triggered years ago since in the government of José Balta (1868-1872) it was seen that the expenses and debts were enormous, and that the income was not what they were notenough to cover such quantity (insert Pag89), which eventually caused the Peruvian State to decline little by little and putting as a guarantee in the debts "El Guano", which they apparently thought was not going to go down, which whichIt did not happen, since at the most important moment it declined. Therefore we can say that the fall of Guano was not the main cause of the defeat we suffer from the Chilean army, since this is more a consequence of poorly managed years than a cause on which the crisis depended.
Chile in search of power
At the beginning of 1875 Peru had Guano deposits that although they were no longer the same, they were still producing income, however since 1875 onwards for Chile it was a challenge to move forward, because it was wrapped in an alarming situationthat threatened the social, hegemonic, and political economic order because "the prices of copper and silver experienced an almost vertical decrease" (Ortega, cited by Pérez Valdivia 2007) that forced Chile not to make a good decision. On the other hand, during that period, new guano sites in Atacama and Antofagast”(Taalean, 2011), which meant that the territories that were on the border between Chile and Bolivia were desired by Chile, which caused it to prepare and acquire war armament (insert table), which shows thatThe Pacific War was a Chilean solution, according to the historian Francisco de Encina "ended the crisis" nevertheless from the point of view of Mc Evo "in the long run, I think the war was a bad business for Chile" (Tantaleán, 2011, p.380) since years later I pass hands from the English, in short an effort for nothing. Therefore the decline of the export of the guano could be a factor during this period, because the Pacific War was caused by the new deposits of Atacama and AntofagastIt was the only one and that it was only one more record of the game that the English loved, against Peru and to us not to have enough money for the decline that was exposed by the export of the guano we lost
"Your best ally or your worst enemy", in Lima on February 1873, Peru signed the Ancón Treaty with Bolivia, agreing the following "the high contracting parts bind and link to mutually guarantee their independence, their sovereignty and the integrity of theirrespective territories, being forced […] to defend themselves with any external aggression, either from one or other independent states, or a flag -free force that does not obey any recognized power ”(cite search), this treaty for Peru was in itsMoment considered the best movement, as Pardo said "I have two armored ones: Argentina and Bolivia" (brown, ment), but who imaginary that Bolivia active in a coward. (Table p.372), if we observe the table we can give ourselves that the Chilean army was lower compared to the sum between the Bolivian army plus the Peruvian, which shows that if Bolivia had not acted in a cowardIt was quite the opposite, on the other hand there is naivety and excessive confidence and dependence that the Pardo government showed: "My compadre Pinto (president of Chile) will not make me war" (Tantaleán, 2011, p.365), which makes the government of the 1876-1879It should be greater, which did not happen since the production of the guano was at a point where the entire budget should be reduced, thus causing the situation in the Pacific War to worsen more and harm us, since we were without weaponsWithout allies without money but with a strong enemy.
Taking into account the foregoing we can affirm that the Guanero decline between 1876-1879 under Pardo, it was not a determining cause since instead of being considered that way it would become a consequence, of a bad government since the year since the year 1869 In command of José Balta, since from that moment, external crises such as Chile that was seen in a complete economic deficit began but that despite this a war against Bolivia to obtain valuable territories, which could stabilize the government Chilean and that of Bolivia, since this entered Chile between the years, involving Peru through the 1873 Acon for excessive confidence from our ruler and, internal conflicts, such as the increase in debts that made the guano become the only guarantee in each signed contract, and the bad administration ion of the income from the export of the Guano to Belgium Holland, the Mauricio Islands, Spain, England, but also to France and its colonies, A, Italy, Germany United States in the military sphere, since this was the most affected, because of (citing we were large) we end up being the lower in what frames the Navy of War, added to the hidden participation of the English.
In my historical research I have been able to analyze and use the method that historians use to give more value to their source that is the analysis, criticism, comparison of research from previous years and the use of primary sources such as letters or treaties, secondary or Until a combination of both, and then organize and base my position, since the fact is indisputable but each historian, or person sees it from a different perspective as I have noticed, on the other hand through my research I have had the opportunity to See the limitations that my person and the historians themselves have, such as the evaluation of sources, the finding of Fuentes, and being as neutral as possible, since being in my case in my country, it is much more difficult because our nationalism will always be Present to defend the honor of our country, however I believe that the analysis that each person and inquiry always help you define a position not for The love of your country but for the facts already specified, also not belong to the country that they or on occasion wishes, such as the situation of some historians, or not having been present in the fact, or the biases that they and even One as a person usually has to one of the parties for various reasons either artistic, social or political economic. Likewise, when investigating the trajectory of each of the authors to determine the value it has, I have discovered the great challenges to which historians are exposed, such as finding primary sources and analyzing them carefully that in my case it was a whole Challenge, since I had to look purpose to interpret the information given through the types of sources, an activity that mathematicians do not do since these are based on their general result, adding to them when experiencing are being participated in the fact, so their conclusions would be concrete and would not have any bias since the fact would be proven, on the other hand in my opinion I believe that the reliability of my sources is quite high since for realization Tsar this work, I have searched and informed of each author and of each test that they showed in their books, and also the reputation and criticisms made towards them, since I believe and think that a society must learn to criticize and defend the truth, the Neutrality and truth have to be key in our daily lives and even more in historians, we must analyze the facts do not keep what they tell us, but to go more to the bottom of the subject, "knowledge is power".