The Beginning Of The Broadcasting Model In Peru

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The beginning of the broadcasting model in Peru

During the government of President August B Leguía there was an event that would change the form of communication and entertainment of the Peruvian people. The National Radio of Peru was officially inaugurated by President Belaunde, on June 20, 1925;A year later it would go to the State.

The broadcasting model that began to emerge was that of a private monopoly, because we still did not enjoy public radio like other European countries. However, the modernity times of that decade made possible the construction of a powerful station, with a different approach, which would not be limited only in the propagation of official state information, but also as an innovative medium dedicated to entertainment and contentnationalist and cultural.

The installation of the Radiodifusora Oax had the support of the prestigious English firm Marconi Wireless Telegraph Co. LDTA, since the Government signed a contract, very questioned by the written media, with said company for a period of 25 years. Due to the influence of media and political opposition, the Executive took the document to Congress and was finally approved with certain modifications (Gargurevich, 1995, P.46-52). The exploitation of mail services, telegraphs and the like (which included broadcasting) was no longer exclusive to the State.

The arrival of this firm administered necessary accessories and appropriate equipment for the installation. However, the rights and concessions of the Marconi Wireless regarding Radiotelephony would go to the brand new peruvian Broadcasting Company, being an exclusive exploitation creditor. The founders of that new company that arrived in our country were Cesar Coloma, Santiago Acuña, Fernando Carvajal, Luis Tirado, Paul Widmer, Ronald M. J. Gordon and W. F. Ford. They carried out the dream of the first radio station in the country, with a range that covered the entire national territory.

The city of Lima entered modern activities that involved radiotelephony, which had warm reception in Lima society. In the months prior to the first broadcast, the written media already talked about this new media, and as expected, there were already enthusiastic radio groups of radio amateurs.

The emotion for the first broadcast quickly vanished. The content issued did not capture the attention of the large public, since cultural conferences and classical music were not themes of interest to the Peruvian people. However, that was not the worst, since the sale of receptors did not prosper either.

This very encouraging context obliges Peruvian Broadcasting co. To announce its dissolution and liquidation. The rights and properties of the company were granted to the Government and the broadcasting services returned again at the hands of Marconi Wireless for its administration. On the other hand, the dream of the radio was eclipsed by the semiannual payment of the well -known "Antena Law". Consumption declined along with the illusion.

On August 25, 1930, Sánchez Cerro issued a decree in which he declared that his government did not recognize the acts and contracts concluded by Leguía or his advisors and warned that “investigation committees of the minutes and contracts of the overthrown government would be appointed(Leguía), prior to August 22 for the review of those who were harmful to national interests ”(Ugarteche, 1969). The exposed rule anticipated what the head of state would be in relation to the contract discussed with the Marconi. This was, as on October 1, the Military Junt. Now it was the turn of the private company National Radiodifusion Company.

During the economic crisis that the country suffered between 1930 and 1933, radio consumption was minimal. However, in 1933 there was notorious economic recovery, and a year later the country was already overcoming the crisis. The new socioeconomic context allowed the emergence of new private radio stations. In 1935, the state gave the Marconi the administration of communications, in exchange for a modern radio station that replaced the old Oax.

For Carlos Raygada, as for many musical critics, the quality of lyrical singers attending live broadcasts did not have the quality of the interpreters of the discs ”(1938, P.14). A survey promoted by the newspaper La Crónica and Radio Central in 1944, confirmed the preferences of the public by certain genres: Creole music and the radioteatros (Vargas, 1944, P.156).

The magic of the radio reached every corner of Peru, from the richest group to the less favored sectors, as radial entrepreneurs had the need to expand the market and this was added the populist policy of Benavides regime. The advancement of technology and overcoming crisis granted the easy acquisition of cheap receptors, installments and higher quality. The most important phenomenon of the decade began to live: the access of popular culture to the environment, and the conversion of this into massive.

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