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Solar eclipse: Eclipse types, History
An eclipse occurs when a light blue body, such as the moon or a planet, moves towards the shadow of another celestial body. On earth, we have two types of eclipses: the moon eclipse called lunar eclipse and the sun eclipse called solar eclipse. In the case of a solar eclipse, the moon moves between the earth and the sun, blocking the intensity of the light. The results are that, although we cannot see all the light of the sun, the harmful radiation continues to come. With protected lenses, a solar eclipse allows scientists and spectators to see areas of the sun that would not normally be available. A solar eclipse also allows the moon to project a shadow on the earth, making it seem to dusk at dusk.
Complete solar eclipse
Solar eclipses occur approximately every 18 months, but unlike lunar eclipses, the solar eclipse only lasts a few minutes. Achieving a total or complete eclipse is a combination of a series of very demanding circumstances that involve both size and distance.
On earth we are incredibly fortunate because the distance between Earth and the Moon, combined with the size of the moon, allows us to have a perfect total eclipse. This would not happen if the moon were smaller or larger or even at a greater or lesser distance.
Types of solar eclipses
When the moon orbit coincides exactly that of the earth and the sun, it moves in the middle and causes a solar eclipse. There are three different types of solar eclipses:
- Total solar eclipse
This type of eclipse is only visible in small places on earth. It requires that you be in the exact center of the eclipse so that the moon is balanced between the sun and the earth. Many of these eclipses occur worldwide, but often occur in the sea or in areas not inhabited by people. During a total eclipse, the shadow of the moon makes the sky dark a lot, almost as if it were night. A total eclipse requires that the sun, the moon and the earth be in a straight line.
As we continue to explore our solar system, we discover that we can have the only perfect balance of sun, moon and planet to observe lunar eclipses and complete or total solar. Unless there is a perfect alignment of size and distance from the sun, earth and the moon, there are only partial eclipses. The distance between the sun and the earth approaches 400 times the distance between the sun and the moon.
The ‘balance’ of this condition occurs when you realize that the diameter of the sun turns out to be almost 400 times greater than the diameter of the moon. Until now, we do not know any other planet, moon, solar proportion in our solar system that coincides with the one we have.
- Partial solar eclipse
This form of eclipse occurs when the earth, the moon and the sun are not exactly aligned. The sun will seem to have a dark shadow only in a part of its surface. The moon seems to be smaller and looks like a dark disc at the top of the largest album in the sun. An annular solar eclipse causes the moon to have a ring around it.
- Annular solar eclipse
(Ann You Ler): This type of eclipse occurs when the moon is at the furthest distance from the earth and does not block the entire sun.
Shadow of the solar eclipse
When a solar eclipse occurs, the moon projects two shadows on the earth. A shadow is called Umbra and becomes smaller as it reaches Earth. It is the dark center of the moon shadow. If you are standing at the umbra, you would see a total eclipse. The second shadow is called gloom and becomes bigger as it reaches the earth. If you are standing in the gloom you would see a partial eclipse.
Human beings have been observing solar eclipses throughout history. The first civilizations thought that a solar eclipse was a sign of perdition or that their gods were angry with them and punished them. They were often considered "omens" of destruction or death, and sought their religious leaders to try to obtain answers. The word ‘eclipse’ comes from ekleipsis, the ancient Greek word to be abandoned.
Dangers of solar eclipses
Although the moon covers the sun, it does not stop the incredibly harmful rays of the sun. Never look directly at a solar eclipse, as you can seriously damage your eyes. If you intend to attend a solar eclipse, get special eclipse lenses. Nor should try to see an eclipse through a camera that does not have a specially designed lens.
The ancient Greeks were known for registering many of their events, including solar eclipses. The Archíloco poet wrote about the total solar eclipse of April 6, 647 to. C.: There is nothing beyond hope, nothing that can sworn impossible, nothing wonderful, since Zeus, father of the Olympics, made the night of noon, hiding the light of the bright sun, and the painful fear seized themens ‘.
John Milton, the British poet is known for many of his writings. In his poem ‘El Paraíso Lost’, Milton includes: ‘Like when the sun, newborn, looks through the horizontal misty air, stripped of its rays, or from behind the moon, in a faint eclipse, the disastrous twilight throwsAbout half of the nations and with fear of change, it leaves the monarchs perplexed ‘.
Animals are also affected by a total solar eclipse. Many animals are worried and confused, but since the eclipse only lasts a few minutes, their discomfort does not last long.
Today we can predict solar eclipses worldwide with many years in advance. This has led to the ability to announce meetings for solar eclipse fans and make arrangements for adults, children and scientists to share the experience. Many places around the world are prepared in advance when a total solar eclipse is in its area.
- Albert Einstein’s general relativity theory remained an idea until May 29, 1919. At that time, Sir Arthur Eddington, a British astronomer and mathematician, used the total solar eclipse to test Einstein’s theory.
- Eddington took photographs of the stars that were located near the sun during the whole and could show that gravity can divert the light. He showed that Einstein’s theory was correct in a phenomenon called gravitational deviation.
- It was due to a solar eclipse that the French astronomer Jules Janssen discovered the helium. Helium is the second lighter and most abundant element we know. Janssen used the solar eclipse of August 18, 1868 to demonstrate its existence. Because the solar eclipse was responsible for discovery, they appointed Helio after the Greek word for sun: Helios.
- Archaeologists have found records dating from 2500 to. C. of both the ancient Chinese and the Babylonians who indicate that they were sophisticated in the study of the skies to be able to predict solar eclipses. The ancient Chinese thought that solar eclipses were signs of success and health for their emperor. Not predicting a solar eclipse would mean that the emperor’s life could be in danger.
- The oldest solar eclipse in human history was recorded on October 22, 2134 to. C. In one of the records of the ancient Chinese, they describe a solar eclipse as ‘the sun has eaten’. His tradition was to hit pots and drums to make the greatest possible noise to scare the dragon who had eaten the sun.
- Clay tables of the ancient Babylon that have been found indicate that the Babylonians recorded and predicted eclipses. The first mention of an eclipse on clay tablets is May 3, 1375 to. C. The Babylonians were the first to make use of the "cycle of saros" for their predictions of solar eclipses.
- The Saros cycle is related to the moon cycle and lasts approximately 6.585.3 days or 18 years, 11 days and 8 hours. Like the ancient Chinese, the Babylonians thought that solar eclipses were bad news for their rulers and kings.
- When a solar eclipse was predicted, the ancient Babylonians would choose a temporary king to last during the eclipse time, hoping that it was this individual who would face the wrath of his God instead of the true king.
- Herodotus was an ancient Greek historian. In his records he indicated that the solar eclipse of 585 to. C. He stopped a pending war between the Medes and Lidios. When they saw that the sky darkened, they made peace between them.
- The Greek Hipparco astronomer made use of a solar eclipse to discover that the moon was at a distance of 429.000 km of the earth. Its mathematics was quite good because it is only 11% more than the numbers that scientists use today.
- Ptolemy was a famous Greek astronomer (CA 150 EC). He kept records of his eclipses observations and demonstrated a very sophisticated way of predicting solar and mole eclipses.
- An example of this is your knowledge of the details of the moon orbit, including its nodal points. His knowledge of the nodal points led him to think that up to two solar eclipses would happen in seven months in the same part of the world.
- Over the centuries, the pioneers of the eclipses tried to explain what a solar eclipse was. These pioneers included Chinese astronom.
- However, it was not until Johannes Kepler gave the complete scientific description of a total solar eclipse in 1605 that science had an explanation. Edmund Halley is known by the famous comet Halley, but also predicted both the trajectory and the moment of the total solar eclipse of May 3, 1715. Using mathematical calculations, it was only 4 minutes and 18 miles / 30 km from the royal route and the eclipse moment.
- The arthronomic archeous (and archaeologist and astronomer), Paul Griffin, made an incredible discovery during his 1999 investigation of the Loughcrew Cairn l Mealitic Monument in Ireland. Found a set of spiral -shaped petroglyphs that corresponded to a solar eclipse that occurred on November 30, 3340 to. C. The symbols seemed consistent in a code that showed the sun, the moon and the horizon, as well as 92 tracks of total solar eclipses, only that of 3340. C. It was visible on the site that showed geometric relationships.
Curious data of the solar eclipse
Solar eclipses occur throughout the earth at a rate of two to five per year. A ‘totality’ is a solar eclipse condition in which the moon completely covers the view of the sun, allowing only the ‘crown’ to be seen. Somewhere on Earth there is a total eclipse every 18 months. The reason why people do not see them all is that they often occur in the middle of the oceans or in areas that humans cannot arrive.