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Sociology in the context of globalization
Globalization, according to sociologists, is a continuous process that implies interconnected changes in the economic, cultural, social and political spheres of society. As a process, it implies the increasing integration of these aspects between nations, regions, communities and even apparently isolated places. In terms of economy, globalization refers to the expansion of capitalism to include all places in the world in a globally integrated economic system. Culturally, it refers to the diffusion and global integration of ideas, values, norms, behaviors and ways of life. Politically, it refers to the development of governance forms that operate at a global scale, whose policies and rules are expected to comply with cooperative nations. These three central aspects of globalization are promoted by technological development, the global integration of communication technologies and the global distribution of the media.
Some sociologists, like William I. Robinson, frame globalization as a process that began with the creation of the capitalist economy, which formed connections between distant regions of the world from the Middle Ages. In fact, Robinson has argued that because a capitalist economy is based on growth and expansion, a globalized economy is the inevitable result of capitalism. From the early phases of capitalism onwards, European colonial and imperial powers, and later American imperialism, created global economic, political and social connections worldwide.
But despite this, until the mid -twentieth century, the world economy was actually a compilation of national competition and cooperation economies. Commerce is more international than global. From the mid -twentieth century, the globalization process intensified and accelerated as the national regulations of commerce, production and finance were dismantled and international economic and political agreements were forged to produce a global economy based on the ‘free’ movementof money and corporations.
The globalization of the international world economy and culture and political structures was led by rich and powerful nations enriched by colonialism and imperialism, including the United States, Britain and many nations of Western Europe. Since the mid -twentieth century onwards, the leaders of these nations created new global forms of governance that established the rules for cooperation within the new global economy. These include the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the Twenty Group, the World Economic Forum and the OPEC, among others.
The globalization process also implies the dissemination and dissemination of ideologies that foster, justify and legitimize economic and political globalization. History has shown that these are not neutral processes and that it is the ideologies of the dominant nations that feed and frame economic and political globalization. In general, it is these that extend all over the world, become normal and are taken for granted.
The cultural globalization process occurs through the distribution and consumption of media, consumer goods and the lifestyle of the western consumer. It is also promoted by globally integrated communication systems such as social networks, disproportionate media coverage of the world elite and its lifestyles, the movement of people from the global northern around the world through business and pleasure trips, and theexpectations of these travelers who house societies. will provide comforts and experiences that reflect their own cultural norms.
In conclusion, due to the predominance of Western cultural and political cultural and political ideologies in the configuration of globalization, some refer to the dominant form of it as globalization from above. This phrase refers to the global globalization model that is directed by the world elite. In contrast, the alternate-globalization movement, composed of many of the poor, poor workers and activists of the world, advocates a truly democratic approach to globalization known as globalization from below. Structured in this way, the current globalization process would reflect the values of the majority of the world, rather than those of its elite minority.