Osmosis And Kidney Anatomy

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Osmosis and kidney anatomy


The present research makes a main focus on knowing the way in which it works and a fundamental part of our body works, the urinary system. In this research we cover issues such as pathophysiology, anatomy and histology, as well as urine production and formation, also including hydroelectric regulation, as well as alterations that can occur at a biochemical level. Similarly, another part of the organism is analyzed, the digestive tract. Where its operation and anatomy are analyzed, also covering the pathologies and alterations that can affect the fulfillment of their functions.

The kidneys are organs that are pairs, a reddish color and have a bean or Jewish form if we see them in a frontal plane, they are located on the flanks between the posterior wall of the abdomen and between the peritoneum, these are located in theThird and among the last thoracic vertebra, where they are protected by the eleventh and twelfth rib in a partial way, if the ribs come to fracture they can damage the kidney in an important way, even being able to affect the quality of life the quality of life.


Kidney Anatomy

The nephron is the functional part of the kidneys and each of these consists of 2 parts by which they are composed of the corpuscle and renal, the corpuscle is a tiny body and the glomerulus is composed of 2 things and by the Bowman capsuleAnd the renal is where blood plasma is filtered. The renal tubule is composed or consists of 3 very important places: the proximal cornered tubule, the Henle handle and the distal cornered tubule.

Operation of the nephron

It should be noted that the blood pressure that is generated by the heart thanks to the beats produces the glomerular filtration. As important data the pressure pushes approximately 20% of liquid that enters the glomerulus. On the other hand, tubular reabsorption, most of the water and solutes is retaken in this step. For this process they get to move chlorine, sodium, bicarbonate, glucose ions, among others, which will reach the peritubular capillaries.  Finally, tubular secretion is said, it is said that it is an accumulation of waste such as urea since it can damage the body and through tubular secretion transporting proteins which helps the drag of the waste to the interstitial fluid. 

As a point to highlight, you should know that there is urine with different concentrations and these can be diluted and concentrated. These different concentrations of urine have as the main culprit the antidiuretic hormone HAD. In the absence of HAD, the kidneys will produce diluted urine, therefore the reabsorb tubules reabsorb more solute. On the other hand, in the presence of HAD, the kidneys produce concentrated urine and the reabsorption will be mostly water.

Hydroelectric regulation

Liquid regulation and traffic control by the body are essential for the regulation of homeostasis and proper functioning of the body to have a good state of good health. Regulatory mechanisms compete to kidneys and other organs that, under normal conditions, maintain homeostasis of body fluids.

The primary function of the kidneys is to achieve a balance between the intake and the elimination of body water and inorganic ions to keep stable the quantity and concentration of these substances in the extracellular fluid. These organs achieve this stability thanks to changes in excreted urine, the most common regulated substances are water, sodium, potassium, chlorine calcium, sulfate, phosphate, hydrogenion ion and magnesium. 

In order for the regulation process to be carried out, there musturea or uric acid, this includes the excretion of foreign chemical agents such as drugs and pesticides. It consists of removing the metabolic products from the blood and excreting them through the urine.

The division of body fluids is found in two sections, intercellular fluid and extracellular fluid, the LIC refer to all liquid components within millions of cells in the body representing two thirds of body water and LECs contain allfluids outside the cells including electrolytes. Water crosses the cell membrane by osmosis and, to do so, use the special transmembrane protein channels called aquoporins.

Diffusion is the movement of loading particles and without load along a concentration gradient. It is the movement of these particles, in which they all collide with each other, which supplies energy for diffusion. As there are more molecules in constant motion in a concentrated solution, the particles move from a higher concentration zone to a lower concentration. 

Glomerular and tubulointersticial alterations.

Glomerular disorders cause conditions to the semipermeable properties of the capillary membrane of the glomeruli, this makes them incorrectly filter and water to the C, and does not let the blood cells and plasma proteins out of circulation. Nephritic syndrome causes glomerular permeability and manifestations that are related to the decrease in glomerular filtration rate, fluid retention and nitrogen residues accumulate.

Nephrotic syndrome increases the glomerular permeability of the membrane which causes loss of plasma proteins through urine. Glomerulitis is the inflammation of glomeruli, which causes fluid retention and membranes precipitously enter erythrocyte fluids to glomerular filtering.

Because of that, urine contains many hematuria erythrocytes and a large amount of protein. Glomeruli can be permanent sequelae and damage can evolve and become chronic renal failure. Tubulointersticial disorders are those that affect the functions of renal tubules, can also affect the interstitial tissue that surrounds renal tubules, are composed of acute tubular necrosis, renal tubular acidosis, acute and chronic pyelonephritis, and the effects of drugs andToxins.

Tubulointersticial diseases are divided into acute and chronic disorders. The chronicles have the characteristic of a sudden beginning and for signs and symptoms of interstitial edema. They include acute pyelonephritis and acute hypersensitivity reaction to drugs. These disorders produce interstitial fibrosis, atrophy in mononuclear infiltrates. Clinical manifestations may include inability to contain urine, evidence of polyuria and nicturia, leads to metabolic acidosis;and low tubular resorption.

Urinary road alterations

The alterations of these pathways are usually presented in the form of bacterial infection, for example symptomatic, asymptomatic infections and have infections in the lower urinary tract such as cystitis and superiors such as pyelonephritis, due to their great ability to cause damage, the superiors are considered more harmfulthan the lower ones. These types of infections are presented by conditions that this with the host that prevent or interrupt the washing of the urinary tract, the disturbance of the protective action of the normal bacterial flora or by the same deterioration of the immune system.

Comparison between normal kidney and a kidney with pyelonephritis

One of the main factors for these alterations are obstruction and reflux since any organism that between the bladder is dragged during urination, when the urine passage is interrupted, it will remain in the bladder and begin to act and as a bacterial growth, these obstructions lift urinary tract calculations Prostatic hyperplasia, a possible malformation of the union of uterovesical and pregnancy, these include neurogenic bladder, little urination little urination instability of the bladder and constipation.

Liver pathophysiology

The liver is located in the upper right of the abdominal cavity, under the diaphragm and above the stomach, the right kidney and the intestines. The liver receives blood from the digestive tract and the base, thanks to the portal vein, and from the aorta, through the hepatic artery. As much as the vein and the artery will be accompanied by bile ducts and lymphatic vessels

The liver regulates the large part of the levels of chemical substances of the blood and synthesizing a substance called bile, which helps transport waste from the liver. All the blood that comes out of the stomach and the intestines passes through the liver. The liver has as a mechanism process, decompose and balance blood, also create nutrients and metabolize medications.

 Image result for liver and bile ducts] Once the liver has decompose the substances that can produce any damage, the by -products are excreted in bile or blood. Biliary by -products enter the intestine and leave the body in the form of feces. Blood hemedivated by -products filtered in the kidneys and leave the body in the form of urine.Image 8. Liver anatomy


The gallbladder is a sack -shaped organ located under the liver that acts as a bile receptacle involved in the assimilation of food in the body. Its vitally important function is to store bile, which is a liquid produced by the liver to digest fats. When the stomach and intestine digie. 

The cystic duct of the gallbladder binds to the liver duct system so that the formation of borders is carried out. Bile is made up of water, cholesterol, pigments, inorganic salts and bile acid salts. There is a hormonal mechanism that stimulates the concentration of the gallbladder with the presence of bile within the duodenum.


  • Gerard J. Tortora, b. D. (2006). Principles of anatomy and physiology . Mexico, d.F.: Pan American Medical Editorial S.A de c.V .
  • Luis and. Q. (2010). Identification of urinary biomarkers for the improvement of the diagnosis of acute renal damage induced by gentamycin. Salamanca: University of Salamanca .
  • Matsson Porth, C. &. (2014). Pathophysiology Health alterations. Basic concepts . Barcelona, ​​Spain.: Wolters Kluwer.

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