Literary essay above all blood
"The State recognizes and protects the ethnic and cultural plurality of the nation …", says art, 2 of the Political Constitution. If the laws are clear. So why is a comedian as Fernando Armas allowed to make the freedom to ridicule the champion Gladys Tejeda for his ethnic features? o The stereotyped and grotesque imitation of the black breast by Jorge Benavides? The answer is more than obvious, in Peru the laws are only applicable to the Peruvian bourgeoisie and not for the original or Afro -Peruvian populations that suffer from racial prejudices. Although it is preached that Peru is a multicultural and inclusive country, this problem remains latent in the mind and attitudes of Peruvians. In the world there has always been racism?, This conflict is highly in all nations. However, according to Ardito, in Peru the differences are the origin of inequality, exclusion and creating vertical relationships.
Unfortunately in Peru, racism is practiced as a form of contempt that is considered weaker;that is, the original communities that reside in rural regions such as San Pedro and Paraybamba due to poverty or educational exclusion. José María Arguedas allows us to know the systematic discrimination, oppression, disappearance and struggle of the indigenous communities of San Pedro within the scenario of the expansion of transnational capitalism Wisther and Wozart and the collapse of the Andean feudal gamonalism of the Aragon family. Where prevailing economic and social regime is the oppression and absolute injustice of the rich and strong towards the poor and weak, protected by the State.
What is racism?, We question ourselves. Ricardo Palma argued: "He who does not have Inga has Mandinga". According to DRAE "racism is an ideology based on the superiority of races or ethnicities about others". Peru is a highly prejudiced country, discrimination is the footprint that marks our culture, is embedded in our mind and is the cause of the great conflicts of the nation. It is enough to see in the streets or social networks, interviews and reports of Peruvians calling other Peruvians of mountain, Indians, auquénidos or wild. The usual racial conflict of the Peruvian population is the "choleo" of those who claim that they are superior in physical beauty, intellectual capacity and race.
Rendón Willka, character of all the blood, the firstborn of the community members who came to Lima, remained in different marginal neighborhoods about eight years, where he suffered from discrimination, mockery and even blows. In the different works he achieved or the night school where he studied, he was excluded and denigrated by his Andean origin.
The ideological and racial discrimination of the Peruvian bourgeoisie and our rulers has not evolved much from the colony. In order to perpetuate themselves in power, as well as part of the extension of interest world imperialism, they always saw the indigenous, native and Afro -Peruvian population as dependent, useless and even irrational beings, who should be assisted clientelistically as a policyof State. Worse, they are considered as second -class citizens, by former rulers such as Alan García, in the unfortunate events that occurred in Bagua.
Likewise, they were systematically oppressed and exploited in the feudal haciendas of servitude and gamonalism of the 19th centuries –XX. Also, according to the Commission of Truth and Reconciliation in Peru, they have been killed or disappeared in the time of terrorism, poor peasants Quechua speakers of the mountains and natives of the jungle, without being found until the current guilty or justice ofSuch atrocities committed.
The heartbreaking abuse of rich to poor is a palpable fact that is evidenced in the conscience of Peru and in the bowels of their territory since always. In the work, Arguedas, shows us the tremendous social injustice that existed in the Sierra del Peru. This incredible disparity of oppressors and oppressed, is more present and throbbing in the current neoliberal economic system that embraces our country. According to the UN, injustice is not only economical and social, it is also educational, they are provided with educational systems outside their cultural diversity. Bilingual educational and teacher materials lack. Therefore, the study is inconsequential for your interests.
In the novel, the rich represented by the Minera Wisther and Wozart and the gamonals that have valuable resources and material possessions, compared to the indigenous population of the Sierra, plunged into the extreme poverty, violence and theft of their land. The Aragón Peralta and the ZAR systematically stripped their land to community members or bought them at ridiculous prices, as well as today with large projects or concessions in Peru. Transnational mining companies such as Yanacocha, Southern Peru, Las Bambas, Antamina Aunt María and others, installed in the Andes mountain range, are not interestedThe Earth Biosphere. The main objective of the masters of these mines is to achieve great sums of money at any cost.
Unfortunately, social conflicts are causing the disappearance of the native population and its culture, and with it the loss of our history and ancestral traditions. If we lose our history and traditions, how can we know who we are and where we really fit?;Moreover, why value and protect ancestral knowledge?, It is essential for future generations and its insertion into a multicultural nation;In similarity as will happen with Rendón Willka, despite having moved away from his little homeland, he never loses the cultural values of his people (he is the faithful presenter of the new awareness of the future).
On the way one wonders, what about the Peruvian state? Where are the supervisory agencies? Who defends the peasant and native communities? Could it be that our rulers are bought, just as they bought the masters of Wisther and Wozart, from the members of the Government in the novel "all the bloods"? That is, the International Minera manages to ally with the Government, the Judiciary and the Police, to expand;Also, subject the indigenous people of San Pedro and Paraybamba, and the small and medium landowners.
The Peruvian State remains indifferent to large predatory and abusive mining. Moreover, when the great social conflicts explode such as Conga, Aunt Maria or Las Bambas, the government brutally represses the settlers and imprisons, inventing different arguments to their leaders, and is put aside from the mining companies. Meanwhile, capitalism argues that mining contribute to GDP growth, encourages Peru’s exports, pays taxes to the State, buy goods and services from national companies, leaves royalties in installed towns and communities and creates many positionsof work.
Given all these difficulties, it is necessary to establish an effective dialogue between the government and the peoples in conflict. Without criminalizing your legitimate protests. If all interested parties meet to achieve an understanding, the whole society will feel respected. For his part, congressman Marco Arana, mentions that socially and environmentally responsible mining companies whether national or private are welcome in the country. That is, the new mining, apart from having social and environmental responsibility, must promote the sustainable development of the localities of its jurisdiction.
"Give. The Indians of the haciendas of San Pedro and Paraybamba, tired of so many abuses, revolt to free themselves from the yoke of economic and social exploitation, headed by Rendón Willka. For Arguedas, Rendón Willka, wise, prudent and transculturated Indian, represents the new consciousness of liberation from oppressed and excluded in the 21st century, of the neoliberal economic system because of their culture.
The different social conflicts that occur throughout the national territory, in recent times, in particular around large projects are continuous and increasingly violent due to the permissibility of the Peruvian government and social and environmental irresponsibility of existing investments. The population raises the voice, takes to the streets, blocks the roads or public roads in indefinite strikes, demanding their basic rights, shouting alive voice: "Agro yes, mine no". Likewise, they ask the free decision about their well -being and way of life.
"Education, the most powerful weapon to change the world," said Nelson Mandela. So true your ideas. People have immense learning capacity. Scientific information and emotional training achieve in the towns of the Earth that awaken from their numbness and that can conquer the long -awaited equity of opportunities. In the work, Rendón Willka, thanks to the training he receives in Lima, as well as conserving and valuing the millenary traditions of their origin, becomes aware of the situation of abuse and injustice suffered by its people, and decides to direct the struggle for liberationof the community members. These actions are a clear sign of how education is a civilized way of achieving the long -awaited equity and social justice as basic rights of humanity and postponed peoples such as ours.
In sum, I think that racism is a problem that considerably affects Peru. It emphasizes national disintegration, prevents the existence of horizontal relations of communication between Peruvians and breaks the essential principles of respect for self – esteem and multiculturalism. Discrimination and oppression not only affect the social, but also economic, of the richest and most poor rich people due to the poor distribution of wealth and the bad policies of the State. Although these crimes are normalized in the International Proclamation of Human Rights and the Magna Carta del Peru, these facts are not punished in the country, except for rare exceptions.
All bloods are mainly based on two ideas. The danger that the communities of the Ande of beliefs and millenary customs, rich in natural resources against the invasion of transnational miners of liberal and capitalist ideologies, and the problem of the modernization of the indigenous world that entails through education and cultural values through education and valuesto a unit that helps change Peru. That is, the historical origin and modernity complement each other in a synthesis through education as good sustained fervently the Taita Arguedas.
Indeed, Arguedas transmits us through reading facts that occurred at an era and context of our history and that on its ruins we must rebuild a new, fairer and all -like homeland and all the bloods. Similarly, always remember the message of Rigoberta Menchú: “I firmly believe that respect for diversity is a fundamental pillar in the eradication of racism, xenophobia and intolerance’.
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