Liberalism Currents

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Liberalism currents


In Europe in the mid -nineteenth century, one of the strongest currents was liberalism, according to Javier Donezar, he went hand in hand with nationalism, since the principles of freedom and autonomy of the people in general were defended in the beginning and they were pillars in social, economic, ideological transformations, etc. These ideologies generate a revolution cycle in early 1820. This originates the beginning of the liberal state.


It reflects the ideals of the European bourgeoisie, because the European people disagree with absolutism and enlightened despotism at that time. The person before was considered a passive being in terms of political participation, but now appears as an active agent in society that is the protagonist of the country’s decisions, according to William Callahan. The policy presented by the liberal system is to defend the rights.

Citizens before the decisions of the State. As for example, the vote, in this way the people were the one who chose their representatives, legislators, leaders, etc. As long as they meet certain conditions and needs that citizens must have to have the right to participate in the elections. It is promoted, according to Miguel Artola, the freedom of expression of citizens and religious freedom, these movements were reflected in the Constitution.

To limit the freedoms that the people and the king could have. "Unite bourgeois, peasants, intellectuals and workers, facing common and presenting itself as a political ideology that fights the absolutism of restoration". The constitutional monarchy watched over the equality of all citizens regardless of social status and judges everyone with equity. In addition, this liberal system presents a constant struggle against absolutism.

Montesquieu, who was president of the Parliament of Bordeaux, presents the theory of the division of powers. For this he makes a trip to England in 1729 to study the political system of the time and thus present his model divided in an independent judicial, executive in the government and legislative in Parliament. This system is how we know it today. Economic liberalism was born from the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century. Which is based on Lara.

In the individual interest of the citizen and the implementation of the free market system, through supply and demand. The State must intervene as little as possible in an economy that is governed by "natural laws". Economic liberalism is governed by three fundamental laws: free individual initiative, free competition and free functioning of market laws. The merchants had economic freedom, since they imposed a price on their products determined.

Without the State influencing its decisions and the private initiative is defended. One of the main sources of wealth of physiocracy or liberalism is agriculture, according to Esperanza Yllán, thanks to the different techniques used. And it is from this where wealth is distributed to the whole society. England is one of the first countries where liberalism had its maximum splendor, because the classical school emerged.

Where many authors defend and disseminate the proposal of economic liberalism in the country. Among the most prominent authors we can find Adam Smith, David Ricardo, Thomas Robert Malthus and J. Stuart Mill. Such and as Eric Hobsbawn states, the liberal system was one of the revolutionary processes created in the year of 1820 in the Mediterranean and Eastern Europe, mainly starring the bourgeoisie in order to instruct the ideals of liberalism and nationalism. 

Previously, these revolutionary processes will take. These revolutionary processes, according to Miguel Artola (1978), were interpreted as the successions of antiabsolutist and nationalist disputes. All this begins with the lifting of the bourgeoisie in France expanding rapidly to Belgium. In this revolutionary era of 1830.

It does not go to the pronouncement as was done in the year of 1820, but rather to the revolutionary day. It intervenes, together with liberals and nationalists, elements that come from low bourgeoisie such as popular masses, this being the most affected by economic conditions, especially by the agricultural crisis of 1827. With all the events that occurred in France, according to Esperanza Yllán (1987), referring to the crisis that came to this country in the year of 1830.


Creating Barricadas and Revueltas society, Luis Felipe Orleans would become the last French monarch by accessing the throne and undoing the legitimistic principle of the Vienna Congress. And thus, give a door to open the period of the bourgeois and liberal monarchy, representing the triumph of moderate liberalism of the great bourgeoisie. Likewise, something similar would happen in Belgium, where a provisional government is constituted that proclaimed its independence in the year of 1830; being its constitution of the new liberal state.

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