King Carlomagno, Carlos El Grande
The Middle Ages is a historical period that extends from the fall of Rome 476 to the fall of Constantinople in 1453. The fall of the Roman Empire was caused by the centralized power of Rome unable to take control of its provinces and the economic decline of the empire prevented the maintenance of the legions, which supported the entire Roman system. The invasion of the barbarians to Rome happened when the Germanic barbarian Odoacro beat the last emperor of Rome, Romulo Augusto. Rome try to protect themselves from the intrusions of barbarian peoples in addition to their borders.
Medieval cities do not have a model, so they generally adapt to geographical and historical circumstances. The streets are not the same, but there is an order of primary and secondary arteries;The places are widened related to them, except secondary roads (simple passages). The rest is used for trade, meetings, etc. The houses, almost always with several floors, help form the atmosphere of the streets and squares. Public and private spaces do not form continuous and separate areas, but there is a common, complex and unitary public space that is distributed throughout the city. The public space of the city has a complicated structure, since it must save the space of the different powers, without ‘center’, but several: the commercial associations, the municipal palace, the cathedral, the Episcopal Palace.
The Carlomagne Empire included between the years 768 D.C. – 843 d.C. Carlomagno, was known as Carlos El Grande or Carlos I, was king of the Franks 768, king of Lombardos 774 and was crowned Emperor 800. Charlemagne died in 814 and was happened by his only surviving son, the death of Luis I Louis 840 was followed by a civil war between his three children, which resulted in the division (and the end) of the empire in three parts 843.
The role of the Church
In the Middle Ages, the Church played an important and central role in the lives of people and the State. They simply thought that heaven or hell existed and that the only way to arrive was through the church. The Middle Ages was a time of conflicts and disorganizes the time marked by the wars with which millions of lives were lost. The Church had a strong and controversial role during these strong and messy times during the Middle Ages.
Medieval institutions: feudalism
Feudalism refers to a strong hierarchical relationship between different levels of owners. A feudal society has three different social classes: a king, a noble class (which can include nobility, priests and princes) and a peasant class. The king owned the entire land available and shared it with his nobility for use. The nobility, in turn, rented their land to the peasants. The peasants entered noble production and military service;The nobility, in turn, paid the king. Each one was, at least nominally, a slave of the king and the peasant work paid for everything.
Medieval institutions: the city and the unions
The unions were associations of artisans and merchants who were trained to promote the financial ones of their members and provide mutual protection and support. As much as social and commercial organizations, the unions were productive throughout Europe between the XI and XVI centuries. A relevant part of the qualified workforce in medieval cities was structured around the organization of unions, which provided educational, economic, religious and social functions.
Medieval institutions: cavalry
The cavalry was originally a pure bravery art for elite cavalry units and later acquired its most romantic connotations in a good way and label. The State vigorously promoted cavalry with the code that required the gentlemen to make an oath to defend the Church and defenseless people. This relationship between religion and war was only strengthened with the Arab conquest of the holy lands and the resulting crusades to claim them for Christianity at the end of the 12th century. The State also saw the benefits of promoting a code that encourages young people to train and fight for their own country.
Medieval Institutions: The University
Originally, medieval universities had no campus. Classes are taught where there is space, such as churches and homes. A university was not a physical space but a collection of individuals gathered as a university. Soon, however, some universities (such as Cambridge) began buying or renting rooms specifically for educational purposes.
The universities were generally structured in three types, depending on who paid the teachers. The first guy was in Bologna, where students rent and paid teachers. The other guy was in Paris, where teachers were paid by the church. Oxford and Cambridge were mainly supported by the crown and the State, a fact that helped them survive the disintegration of the monastery in 1538 and the subsequent withdrawal of all the main Catholic institutions in England.
Humanistic contributions of the Middle Ages
The humanistic contributions left by the Middle Ages begin with its monarchical government system that still prevails. The Catholic religion has left us through its beliefs, cathedrals and composition of hymns. Religious wars have been part of the history of the Middle Ages. The freedom of thought that was born in medieval universities, which was born in medieval universities and was confirmed in the implicit understanding that philosophers and scientists would continue their work without trying to destroy human faith.
The expansion of Islam and the Crusades
The Crusades were a series of group of military organized by the Christian forces to recover Jerusalem and Holy Land behind Muslim control. There would be eight groups of officially sanctioned military between 1095 and 1270 and much more unofficially. Each military group met with mixed successes and failures, but in the end the purpose that was maintaining Jerusalem and Holy Land in Christian hands failed. Despite this, the application of the ideal that makes a crusade followed until the 16th century D was followed.C., It should be considered what were the motivating factors for the Crusades, from the Pope to the most humble warrior, mainly for the first group of military who created a model to follow.
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