José Vasconcelos and his footprint in Mexican education
The Mexican Constitution was promulgated in 1917, but in some regions the war continued until 1920. When it ended, many things had changed. The country remained in the hands of a new generation of men and women foguedos in the revolution. The destruction was palpable in agriculture, mines, factories and commerce;The roads, bridges, railways, telegraph cables, and other facilities. The only thing that worked were the oil fields and some mines, owned by foreigners, who were respected not to create difficulties with the governments of their countries.
Peace was restored The armies of Zapata and Villa were defeated, but in Morelos and in Chihuahua the guerrillas continued fighting against the Carrancistas, even after Zapata was killed, in 1919. Villa signed peace with the government in 1920. He received the Canutillo ranch, in Durango, and retired there. In 1923 he was killed in an ambush, in Hidalgo del Parral, Chihuahua.
Venustiano Carranza was the first elected president after promulgated the Constitution of 1917. At the end of his term (four years) he failed to convince the revolutionary leaders to support his candidate for the following elections. Consequently, Generals Álvaro Obregón and Plutarco Elías Calles organized the Agua Prieta rebellion, named for the population where he began, in the state of Sonora. Carranza escaped with some of his men for Veracruz. He was killed, in the Sierra de Puebla, in a town called Tlaxcalantongo, in May 1920. At the triumph of the rebellion, Adolfo de la Huerta was appointed interim president and got the Zapatista generals and the same Villa left the weapons. Thus peace was achieved in the country and new presidential elections could be summoned, in which Álvaro Obregón triumphed.
The most important task of Álvaro Obregón in his government, from 1920 to 1924, was to implement the reconstruction of the country and seek national unity.
It was necessary to repair what was destroyed. And comply with what the revolution had offered. Estates began to expropriate and to distribute land to the peasants. Minimum wages, work schedules and safety conditions were set in the same factories. The workers were supported so that they could organize the first unions
José Vasconcelos, Secretary of Education, struggled because primary school would reach the whole country and all Mexicans knew how to read and write. Those who knew should teach those who did not know;Libraries were founded in cities and towns;Magazines and books were published, for children and also for adults. In the countryside, Vasconcelos organized cultural missions: groups of students and professionals who installed as temporary teachers in different places, to literate people and teach hygiene measures, trades and how to better take better use of the resources of the place. Vasconcelos supported musicians, writers and painters. Popular inspiration gave originality and strength Mexican art, which reached universal recognition.
The Cristero Rebellion Plutarco Elías Calles was president of Mexico from 1924 to 1928. During his government organizations multiplied in 1925 the Bank of Mexico was created. The construction of the road network and the first large dams began. However, there were no years of prosperity or peace.
The street government tried that American and English oil companies comply.
The National Revolutionary Party of former President Obregón wanted to return to power and managed to reform the laws that prohibited re -election. He won the 1928 elections.
From 1928 to 1934 there were three presidents. None of them covered a full period. However, true power concentrated on Plutarco Elías Calles, who was known as the maximum head of the revolution.
In relatively close years, and after the government creation of organisms with defined objectives to form and strengthen the National System of Science and Technology, but that had a short life, as was the case of the driving commission and coordinator of scientific research (Cicic) In 1942 and the National Institute of Scientific Research (INI) in 1950, the Mexican government and numerous members of the academic, business and labor sectors have worked in this area around the programs proposed through the National Council of Science andTechnology (CONACYT), created in 1970.
The work done in the last thirty years, although not always with the sufficiency of resources and with the required continuity, has enabled the establishment and expansion of the capacity for scientific and technological research in Mexico.