John Locke: biography, works, philosophical thoughts
Biography: John Locke
John Locke was a British thinker who lived during the seventeenth century who showed interest in several areas such as philosophy, politics, medicine and experimental sciences. John Locke was born on August 29, 1632 at Wrington, studied at the Oxford Christ Church at the end of his studies, he decided to stay in that place to teach Greek and rhetoric. In addition, he lived in one of the most bellicose times in English history, which ended with the restoration of the parliamentary monarchy. Locke showed curiosity very soon for politics, which caused many problems in addition to philosophy. In 1656 he obtained the degree of Bachelor in Arts and in 1658 the Master. Interestingly, he obtained the title of Medicine in 1674, also for his studies, he showed a special interest in the work and thought of some philosophers among them, Descartes, who significantly influenced him in his ideas. Pierre Gassendi also, for the criticism that he had made to scholastic philosophy and Cartesian philosophy itself, after the fall of Cromwell, in the period known as restoration, Locke showed conservative ideas. A fact that can be contrasted when examining the prolific correspondence that he maintained at that time, dealing with political or civil issues.
In 1662 he became part of the Royal Society, an entity overturned in the promotion of knowledge of nature. In this way he was recognized as one of the most important scientists of his time in experimental sciences. At this time Locke began to modify his political positions and become a supporter of liberal policies, his political change led him to exile in France, between 1675 and 1679, there he tried and knew the French thought and intellectuality of the time. Subsequently, between 1683 and 1689, he returned to exile, this time to Holland. In 1686 Locke was one of the most energetic supporters of the glorious revolution that would lead Guillermo de Orange, governor of Holland, to the English throne. With the triumphant revolution, England became a parliamentary monarchy and the country’s liberal regime was configured. Back in England, John Locke was recognized as one of the key intellectuals of the new British political system. From this moment he dedicated himself fully to his philosophical activity. John Locke died at High Lavre, England, on October 28, 1704. His body was buried in the cemetery of the Church of Lavre, where he lived since 1691. (Para.1-10)
His works or thoughts
According to Fouce (2016): Locke’s philosophy is part of Francis Bacon’s ’empiricist’ tradition, receiving the influence of Gassendi and sharing the anti -dogmatic and ‘experimental’ character of the Royal Society, under the clear influence of the new scienceof the nature. (p.1)
In addition, Fouce (2016) also states that his main works were:
- 1667 Essay on tolerance.
- 1668 considerations on the consequences of interest reduction
- 1671 two essay drafts
- 1689 First letter on tolerance (in Latin and anonymous)
- 1690 Essay on human understanding
- Treaties about civil government
- Second letter
- 1693 thoughts about education
- Third letter
- 1695 Reasonableness of Christianity
- Posthumous work
- Intelligence guide
- Comment on the epistles of San Pablo
- Writings of his first period (absolutist edge)
His philosophical thinking: empiricism
His philosophical thinking is empiricist, part of a criticism of innatism and rationalism, all his thinking is dedicated to the effort to adhere to the concrete experience. Empiricism affirms that human consciousness obtains from experience and that beyond them there are nothing more than insoluble or arbitrary problems fantasies. With this Locke imposes healthy moderation on the claims of human reason. This manifests in his ideas of (P.3):
- "Affirmation of individual freedom, politically". (Barrionuevo, 2005, Para.3)
- "Defense of religious tolerance, because considering the free man wants to guarantee inside the exercise of his effective faculties". (Barrionuevo, 2005, Para.4)
- "In his goal: the social function of man and the concrete tasks awaiting him in life". (Barrionuevo, 2005, Para.5)
Locke (1690) in his essay on human understanding mentions that: “Everything that the mind perceives in itself, or everything that is the immediate object of perception, of thought or understanding, that is what I call an idea;And to the power to produce any idea in the mind, I call the quality of the subject to whom that power resides. Thus, a snowball has the power to produce in us the ideas of white, cold and round;To those powers to produce these ideas in us, as they are in the snowball, I call them qualities;And as soon as they are sensations or perceptions in our understanding, I call them ideas;of which ideas, if sometimes I speak as being in things themselves, I want it to be understood that these qualities mean in the objects that produce those ideas in us ”. (p.8)
Locke and liberalism
In this sense, it is considered the father of modern liberalism is inspiring the ideas that served as the basis for the Political Constitution of France and the United States. Also in his political thinking, the connection with empiricism can be appreciated, for example, when he affirms: it is natural law that man seeks happiness and refuses suffering, there are no innate moral laws and only because of the experience learns man to foresee theconsequences of their actions and to act according to reason. Recognize three fundamental types of laws by which morality can be judged, that is, the real utility of an action: divine laws, civil laws and laws of public opinion. (Barrionuevo, 2005)
Attributes maximum importance to social uses and the desire for approval and estimates that it moves men. In this way, Locke’s utilitarianism establishes a close connection between the individual’s happiness and the general utility. This same optimistic approach serves as a basis for Locke’s political thought. On the one hand, Hobbes had conceived natural law as the unlimited right of all to everything, and therefore he had considered the original condition of man as a universal war. On the other hand, for Locke the natural right of each man is limited by the equal right of other men and, therefore, discovers in the very state of nature the possibility of an orderly and peaceful coexistence. The decree of man is limited to the person himself, namely: right to life, freedom and property as soon as he is the result of his own work. In turn, they consider that these rights are inalienable and suppose the rights of defense and justice, that is, that all men have the right to defend their own life, freedom and property, as well as the right to punish those who attempt against them. (Barrionuevo, 2005)
The importance of Locke in education and in the changes of the time, are not always recognized. The expansion of the scientific mode prevailing at the time and established by Newton, not only in what affects man and society but also education, would be an achievement of John Locke, as well as in Holland, he wrote a series of letters toAND. Clarke, about the education of his son, who were printed in 1693 under the epigraph some thoughts about education (1693) translated into the French, German and Italian. He reissued countless times due to his great popularity and was increasingly summoned as an authority proven in the field of education. (Barrionuevo, 2005)
His ideas about human understanding or about the mind, were also reflected in the education of the 18th century and especially the 19th century. The idea that the mind is passive in perception, would remain for a long time as a basic postulate of scientific methodology and would exert a profound influence on the theory of education.
The concept of Tabula Rasa, transferred it to the concept of the child mind, which is “as white or wax paper, which can be molded and adapted as you want. Thus, the difference that can be found in the ways and skills of men is due more to their education than to any other thing ”. (Locke, 1690)
According to Barrionuevo (2005), other important statements from Locke are:
- The idea that the factor that guarantees self-control is the desire to gain estimation, to which "children are sensitive", as well as the feeling of honor, mercy to which a simple reproach can be more effective than a punishment. (p.7)
- Body sentences should be avoided as much as possible because they teach to undergo violence rather than reason. (p.7)
- The game is an educational factor of enormous importance, and not only as physical exercise. The game teaches to measure themselves, to dominate, to act with benefit on the external world, so it must be taken into account in intellectual education. In addition, it can be a source of intellectual teachings. For example, children could learn to read playing with cubos, with the letters of the alphabet. (p.7)
John Locke phrases (Gimenez, 2008)
- "What worries you, enslave you". (Gimenez, 2008)
- "Where there is no law, there is no freedom". (Gimenez, 2008)
- "Take half the time to use the other". (Gimenez, 2008)
- "Happiness is a condition of the mind and not of the circumstances". (Gimenez, 2008)
- "Our actions are the best interpretations of our thoughts". (Gimenez, 2008)
- "The need to seek true happiness is the foundation of our freedom". (Gimenez, 2008)
Exhibition scheme. General presentation scheme.
In this dramatization, what is sought is to capture is "Jhon Locke’s tabula" through a similar situation during 3 stages of life: childhood, adolescence, adulthood.
Scene 1: Childhood
In this scene you are going to deal with a situation that usually happens, such as when you are a child and you find a toy that you like, you pick it up and keep it, but at the time the person who awaits you to theDeparture, in this case, the mother encourages the child to look for the teacher and return the toy since it was not his.
Scene 2: Adolescence
In this part it is something similar to the previousin which he has to return it, however, he was forced to return it when the owner demands it.
Scene 3: Adulthood
In this section the adult says goodbye and once he was collecting his things, a co -worker approached to offer the company’s important information to a greater competition that in return would receive a lot of money, but he refuseddo it and decided to inform the boss, managing to keep his work without that being the intention.
In conclusion, we have that in our mind there are no innate ideas, nor do we have mental schemes, but thanks to the experiences obtained in our years of life these are the ones that make up our knowledge.
Finally, as Locke is pointed out by knowledge is obtained from the senses that becomes experience in later, so that the human ability to make decisions and have control over actions are related, since they avoid making repetitive mistakes thanks
- Barrionuevo, m. AND. (June 26, 2005). John Locke (1632 – 1704). His life, his work and thought. Ibero-American Education Magazine, 1-9. Obtained from John Locke (1632 – 1704). His life, his work and thought: https: // rieoei.ORG/RIE/ARTICLE/VIEW/2979/3889
- Fouce, j. M. (January 23, 2016). Webdianaia. Obtained from Locke works: https: // www.Webdianaia.com/modern/locke/locke_obras.htm
- Gimenez, f. (2008). Philosophy and education. Obtained from lessons about John Locke: http: // www.philosophy.Net/Materials/Tem/Locke.htm
- Locke, j. (1690). In essay on human understanding (vol. 2, p. 8 Cap II).
- Vicent, b. (2016). Economipedia. Obtained from https: // economipedia.com/definitions/John-Locke.HTML