It is defined as an elderly to all those with 60 years or more
It is defined as an elderly to all those with 60 years or more, according to the UN Report Perspectives of 2017, the world population is experiencing a aging dynamic. The projections indicate that the elderly population doubles by 2050 and triples for 2100, that is, from 962 million in 2017 to 2.100 million in 2050 and 3.100 million in 2100.
This type of information is very useful in disaster care, because this select group of individuals can acquire a degree of vulnerability given some conditions that accompany the advanced age and that can increase the risk of suffering conditions that can rush withthe disasters.
Hurricane Katrina reports in 2005 showed that three quarters of the people who died were over 60 years. Disaster experience has shown that it is the elderly who suffer more, and to a certain degree it is also due to the fact that it is the least prepared population in the face of these types of situations. According to a National Disaster Preparation Survey among the elderly in the United States of the American Public Health Magazine of 2015, it showed that only 34.3% reported having participated in an educational program or reading materials on disaster preparation.
Within those conditions that can accompany the elderly and increase the vulnerability of the elderly, we find physical, behavioral and emotional symptoms, including: the decrease in visual acuity, auditory problems, fragility and restrictions on the march, risk of falls, chronic diseases. Additionally, many of these conditions predispose the old man to enter the disabled group, so we can find them that to move they need the use of tools such as wheelchairs, canes, hikers among others. These aspects are key and cannot be forgotten when making an intervention within this select group.
Among other physical and behavioral symptoms we find the rejection of the elderly to abandon the home, the fear of being institutionalized, avoidance and isolation, depression, sleep disorders, memory problems, the greatest susceptibility to temperature changes, despair of losses, apathy, confusion and disorientation. In addition to the physical and mental state of the elderly, its environment must also be known, that is, its level of education, socioeconomic level, gender, family and their own home. Since it has been found that, in those elderly with poor family support, low level of education and socio -economic have shown less level of preparation against disasters and greater number of victims.
Before proceeding to carry out an intervention in the elderly, you must know where and under what conditions is the place where the disaster occurs. If the conditions are suitable for the displacement of the elderly, if the appropriate resources are available for their attention, if the care personnel know the number of individuals with special conditions in the area, if the personnel are prepared. This is why there is no universal protocol since they change according to the place and the present situation.
In a country like Colombia, which does not enjoy the economic state of developed countries, the percentage of non -preparation in the population and the probability that the number of victims will increase, is greater. This is why the populations must be individualized, since the disasters of the last decades have evidenced that in places like Haiti where the majority of the population is in poverty and the conditions of the territory make it difficult to arrive the timely arrival of humanitarian aid;Emergencies cause higher havoc, and in populations such as the elderly it can be worse.
When proceeding with the intervention in older adults there are different guidelines, according to a report by the 2012 Pan American Health Organization of the guidelines for the care of the needs in elderly in disasters in the Caribbean, there are four necessary pillars inThe intervention: communication, which is provided at the right time and in terms that the person manages to understand what they are trying to explain;second coordination, making sure it is complementary;third education, which increases awareness and knowledge about disasters;And finally the inclusion and accommodation of the individual.
During and after a disaster, the main objectives are to provide the conditions and assistance necessary for the elderly to reduce the injuries, avoid the loss of lives and property, and help their recovery as soon as possible. The emergency plan should be activated as soon as the event;Notify the authorities and identify the presence of older people and locate them;Using aid such as population demographic records, personal volunteer and other elderly, using the support of the elderly and asking civic and religious leaders the location of this type of people.
After located, they must proceed to classify them with alert information according to the medical history to inform the caregivers. Once this should be resolved, the needs and costumes are to guarantee, take into account those who have a place of residence or a relative that can be provided, always looking for family reunification.
Hydration and food are two key aspects for survival after a disaster, and the elderly the requirements can vary according to the accompanying conditions. The absences of these resources can worsen their clinical pictures and in a disaster situation it is difficult to receive adequate attention for the situation, for this reason dehydration and malnutrition should be avoided as much as possible. Mobility can be limited and the crisis can worsen, so the supply of tools that make the movement with due order is necessary because they are sure to increase with increase in demands.
Access to this type of services must be equal, it is common for this isolated sea to. It is for this reason that the entire population must be sensitized by promoting equal access to essential services preventing special populations from being victims of abuse.
The health of the elderly is another issue that must take into account, as mentioned above, advanced age can come hand in hand with different comorbidities, which is why in a disaster situation we want to prevent these diseases from getting worse and compromise lifeFrom the person, therefore the availability of medicines must be ensured for at least two months for the treatment of chronic diseases, and in the case of exacerbations of conditions send to the nearest hospital to receive a prompt attention. Monitoring of their base conditions, such as diabetes, kidney disease, handling and control of hypertension. It is necessary to the presence of antiseptics, antiretrovirals, antibiotics, antiasmatic. All these duly packed and with their reserved records.
Social, psychological and family needs must also be guaranteed. It is the work of care and emergency personnel and disasters to help the restoration of family and social contacts;give information to improve the degree of orientation and at the same time generate an environment of trust that decreases the stress of the moment. In addition, it can also be useful for the situation of contributions by older adults;Since it helps improve the mental health of the elderly and increases the useful personnel for intervention in activities that do not require advanced training, it is recommended that volunteer training is mainly in psychological first aid.
Finally, we must not forget that the old man must.