Iran: The second power of the Middle East
Iran, a country located between the Middle East and Asia, could be considered a strategic point in the world. Currently, we know Iran as the Islamic Republic of Iran, but it was not until 1979 that, this country, step of being a monarchy to be a democracy. Before 1979 Iran was directed by Sha Mohammad Reza Pahlaví that based its policy on the modernization and westernization of the country.
His mandate imposed policies that caused repression and economic inequalities in the country. The Iranian population, tired of this situation, in the 70s, began to revolutionize against the SHA regime. These opposition forces to the regime were directed by Ayatolá Ruhollah Musavi Jomeini, a leader who promised the democratization of Iran and ensured reforms for the country’s growth.
The year 1979, these groups ended up overthrowing Sha Reza Pahlaví and declared the Republic of Iran. With this, Jomeini came to power and directed the country to an Islamic Republic with Chiism as an official religion. A year later of the proclamation of the Republic, Iraq (neighboring country) attacked Iran. The origin of this attack is based on historical causes caused by territorial conflicts between the two countries.
But, the main reason was that the president of Iraq (Saddam Hussein) saw the Islamic Republic of Iran as a threat to the stability of his regime and began to invade the country. This war lasted 8 years, but its consequences are still present today. Internationally, the proclamation of the Islamic Republic was seen by world powers as an expansion of radical Islamism.
This ended that the United States would include in the axis of evil and create alliances with other western countries. From the economic point of view, Iran is considered the second power of the Middle East. The country has the fourth oil reserve in the world, this being the main source of wealth of the country. For this reason, the commercialization and export of oil is very important for the economic development of Iran.
However, with the proclamation of the Islamic Republic the economy of the country was affected. The fact that they will bet on the development of the nuclear program based on uranium enrichment caused the UN to implement a series of sanctions in the country. As a consequence, the United States, ally with Western countries, vetoed the import of oil from Iran. This action caused an economic crisis in the country that was impacted by an increase in inflation and a decrease in economic growth.
Years later, in 2015, in order to recover the country’s economy, Iran signed a nuclear agreement with the United States and five more countries. This pact led to the lifting of all the sanctions that the UN was imposing. It should be noted, but, the recent EE departure. UU. and the consequent political agreement, between Iran and the three remaining EU countries, for the permanence of the nuclear plan. Even so, how will the United States departure impact on the nuclear pact?