- Show more
Importance of socialization in children
In this work we will work what related to the development of socialization and friends, among children from 0 to 12 years. We will deal. First, all group members have made a search for information obtained from various sources of what the topic to be discussed, in order to synthesize the important points of the subject. We have also used other types of sources, such as some thesis to deepen the information in this area.
Finally, obtained all the information, we think about how we could explain the topic through innovation. The way to carry out the presentation will be through an explanatory and representative video with the most important concepts and ideas of work. Mainly at work we will talk about the concept of socialization and characteristics of this. In addition, we will focus on the different authors: Piaget, Raymond – Rivier and Susan Isaacs. What is socialization? Socialization is called the process through which the human being learns values meanings and norms of a certain society or culture.
Through this process it allows to acquire the ability to facilitate coexistence among individuals. In this process certain agents involve which are necessary to convey a series of norms or values, which are: Family: It is the first social group where the child obtains the influence of decisions that will allow him or not to socialize. It is the reference group where the individual performs his first social experiences and learns the traits of identification and the features that determine moral coincidence and performance motivation. Socialization functions do not depend on the class or the social stratum to which the parents belong.
Therefore there are different rules of learning and internalizing the rules. The family has always been the most important socializing agent in the individual’s life. Some authors have clarified that social changes have caused the importance of the family to be lost as an agent the arrival of other socializing agents such as school, friends of friends and the media. The family has the monopoly of socialization and, in addition, especially during childhood, selects the other agents directly or indirectly, choosing the school to which children go, selecting the friends with whom they meet, controlling their accessto television, etc.
The family is an important link in society and in the individual. Every family socializes the child in relation to their way of life, which is influenced by the social, economic and historical reality of the society in which it is present. There are authors who indicate differences in socialization, according to the social class to which the family belongs: first, the authoritarian socialization, which occurs in lower class families which emphasizes obedience, physical punishments and prizesmaterials, adult authority and secondly, participatory socialization, which occurs in middle and upper class families where participation is important.
Non -material rewards and punishments, dialogue, children’s wishes. School: The school influences when the child has a series of behaviors assumed as his. The importance of this in socialization is decisive, since skills and knowledge are achieved and norms, values and customs are transmitted. As for the extracurricular-student relationship, it is positive, since it helps to better mutual knowledge outside of school. In addition, personalized attention can be introduced, such as tutorials, aid, etc. Thus creating a productive interaction for socialization and academic performance.
Media: All kinds of comics, press, television, radio, helped the child’s socialization. Television among them is the one that has the most influence. We can highlight: Many children instead of doing some activity spend the day watching TV. On some occasions, TV shows violent acts, and therefore children tend to imitate them. It also classifies family activities, because the time they dedicate to each other is limited. Friends: Friendship goes from being a concrete relationship based on a pleasant activity to evolve towards a more abstract mutual relationship. Includes psychological and companionship affections.
Friendship relationships are decreasing with age. There are different levels of friendship. Level 1: companionship in the game between 4 and 7 years. It is not durable since it is interrupted when they do not coincide in an activity. Level 2: As trust and support between 8 and 10 years, this trust is broken for example with criticism behind the back. Level 3: As intimacy and loyalty from the age of 11, it considers friendship as an openness to others. Implies forgiveness and compression. Child socialization is the most important because through this you can identify the social identity of the child and so that later we know their participation in social life.
Among the characteristics of socialization we can highlight: the human being is carried out in other individuals with the same species, if this relationship did not exist, it would not be humanized, therefore, we can clarify that socialization is the ability they have to relate toothers. In addition, socialization is coexistence with others, if it did not exist the human being would not enjoy some satisfactions to achieve a mental balance. The human being has the ability to act humanly through a series of norms, guidelines, values and customs that he internalizes. As for socialization we can highlight a series of theories, such as:
Structuralism- Functionalism: Through which we understand socialization within the conception of social action. Phenomena are understood as functions of the social system and the function of the socializing process such as the internalization of norms and values that are accepted in the social system and in the acceptance and fixation of roles. Theory of symbolic interactionism: this theory explains reality with a "symbolic continuous" forming a social behavior, which has as a basic symbol the language. Role theory: This theory is based on an educational phenomenon to refer to socialization.
This conducted research on socialization and communication and also school, work-professional socialization and convergent behavior. Social learning explained by Albert Bandura is the theory that best explains it, since it explains that everything that can be learned directly can also be done by observing others, this procedure is called learning by observation. Bandura highlights two important aspects;The first, differentiates the learning of a behavior to the execution of it, and the second is that the observation depends to a greater extent on the success or failure achieved by the observed person than by the awards or punishments that the person who observes receives.
According to Piaget, the child until the year and a half after his birth is not able to perceive the things around him. Piaget focused on the study of cognitive processes, mental processes that lead the thought and understanding of reality. Investigated the different learning stages through which children go to verify biological development and social experiences. These stages are: Sensoriomotor stage: children understand the world through their senses, playing, smelling, sucking, looking, hearing. Social skills are limited, they are not able to understand symbols.
Preoperational stage: The child at this stage understands and uses words. And also distinguishes dreams from what reality is, but they are able to transmit value and meaning to things. For example, the child explains what his favorite toy is like, but he is not able to say the qualities such as his size. This stage is characterized by the child’s egocentric language. Stage of concrete operations: At this stage children can perceive what surrounds them in their environment, begin to understand how and why some things, therefore begin to manage their environment and overcome egocentrism that emerged in the previous stage.
Stage of formal operations: the child reason in abstract and critical words. It begins at age 12, that is, in adolescence, in which they also have an energy overload, in which they also present creativity and imagination. Here they understand and use metaphors, and approve or reject facts based on their principles. Piaget’s help to the study of socialization relies on the idea that this process is predictable, the experiences that the individual accumulates throughout his life in addition to biological development in addition to biological development in addition to biological development in addition to biological development in addition to biological development in addition to biological development. In addition, it reflects that in society there is a difference between the world of life and the social system and that there are also two forms of social integration:
The one that relies on individuals, seeking peace through language, communication. The social system that is consolidated after the result of that communication. The world of life is formed by culture, society, and personality;is where understanding is achieved. Through communication, listener and speaker are located to seek understanding, discuss differences and finally reach an agreement. With the passage of time the child imports different spaces: school, classmates, friends, etc. In turn, it becomes a social being and shows great interest in relating to society.
According to Raymond-Rivier there are several stages in affective and social development: first stage: lone activity. Second stage: parallel game.Third stage: associative game. Fourth stage: collaboration phase. From the age of 8, the child begins to detach from the family to depend more on the group of friends and will be from the age of ten when the groups of friends will have a unisexual character. This period of the affective life of children, is a moment of tranquility because they relate to the peers and adults where they will acquire knowledge of themselves, they can control their impulses, meet others.
Learn the norms and also the coexistence system. Thanks to this, they can build their self – esteem and the assessment of themselves. The relationship with the group receives great importance since it is a source of learning of its possibilities and of all kinds. In school the child establishes connection with different people, who have different nomas and operations outside him and in which he looks immersed and has to understand. Thanks to school, children learn a lot of useful information for their social development. It was marked by Piaget’s ideas before criticizing them. Susan directed a school La Martin House School in Cambridge, where she did research on the development of children.
Susan observed the behaviors that children had before the arrival of a new child. Given these behaviors, he contemplated the reactions that 6 -month -old babies had when they joined them, they did not interact with each other because at this age they do not have the ability to socialize. In the second test it focused on the preschool stage of children between 7 and 11 years, the arrival of the new student makes some children feel threatened for that reason they react aggressively by kicks, blows. In the last test it is observed how children over 12 years are already able to socialize with the other children inside the classroom.
Susan Isaac says “thorough observations show that, in reality, children do not have such social instincts that will appear later. Is that their first impulses towards others suffer certain changes in their modes of expression as their experience expands. In the preschool stage ". With the completion of the work all the members of the group have benefited ourselves in knowing better the development of the child of socialization and friends. Regarding the subject, we have focused on Piaget’s theory according to socialization and the difficulties that children have according to the different stages through which it happens.