Factors Associated With Cervical Cancer

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Factors associated with cervical cancer


According to the authors of Meddisan magazine they define, neck cancer or cervix carcinomwhich can invade or not the underlying tissue and produce remote metastases.

This cancer is caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV) that has different subtypes and the most dangerous are HPV 16 and 18 responsible for 70% of cases of cervical cancer in the world, HPVs will be classified as: bass virusRisk, they are benign lesions (HPV pos 6 and 11), and high irrigation virus that are evil and produce pre -cancer and cancerous lesions .


As for the virus, the long control region is 15% of the viral genome and has as promoters the initiation of replication and transcription control. This is divided into two domains which are: the RE2, regulated by the trace of the viral protein E2 and where the origin of the replication of the viral DNA, the early promoter;and the CE domain, the exclusive transcription enhancer for cell transcripts factors.

As for epidemiology, every year more than half a million women in the world are diagnosed with cervical cancer, and a quarter of a million die because of this disease, about nine out of ten of these deaths occur in countries in countriesMedium and low economic resources, where the mortality rate is 85%, having economic and social consequences.

At present there is great inequality in the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer, where there is prevalence in low -income and developing countries, having a high incidence in Africa countries such as Zambia (52,8), Tanzania (Tanzania (50, 9), per 100.000 women;or in South America: Guyana (44.7), Bolivia (36.4) 8.6. In Peru, a total of 4,636 new cases with 1,715 deaths are specified, the incidence of cervical cancer is different according to geographical regions.

As soon as the factors associated with cervical cancer were found in relation: the early beginning of sexual intercourse, multiple sexual partners in both sexes, promiscuous male couples, multi parity, immunosuppression, infections of sexual transmission such as trichomonas, gardnerella vaginalis, herpesType II Viral (HSV-2), Chlamydia and Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) 1.10. Smoking is also related to cervical cancer and a significant association studies between the use of tobacco and cervical cancer are found.

Genetic predisposition as human leukocyte antigen genes (HLA) are related in various forms. Some HLA gene anomalies narrow with a higher risk of HPV infection progressing cancer.

As for the clinical presentation of cervical cancer, it is usually detected in a routine exam, the discovery is an abnormal success of Papsicolaou, it is usually asymptomatic. Clinically it occurs as the first symptom, the vaginal bleeding of the rule or post coital, pelvic pain, secretion with bad smell and dysuria. There is also a positive result of Pap smear. Physical examination and auxiliary exams are important because, they will reveal the evidence of cancer and if it metastasis in other organs.


Its detection is carried out with complete evaluation and the Pap smear which is positive, they must be taken to colposcopy and biopsies with study of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, including splitting procedures. Once the diagnosis is obtained, a complete and hepatic function of renal and hepatic function must be requested to look for metastasis in other organs and image studies to be able to stimulate. As for the treatment, statification and its timely detection will be given. For early invasive cancer, surgery is the best choice treatment. In the most advanced cases, radiation combined with chemotherapy is the current standard. 

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