- Show more
Drug use in the development of adolescence
Drug use is a development -related phenomenon, which increases almost linearly from the beginning to the end of adolescence. Drugs generate a large number of problems to the people who consume them and this affects not only in the individual or personal sphere but also to the family, social and public health field. At present, drug use, both those of legal trade and alcohol and tobacco, as well as those of illegal trade (cannabis, cocaine, synthesis and hallucinogens drugs) have a high prevalence, and lead to a high incidence in problemshealth in the people who consume them, especially in the youngest, reflecting in an important morbidity and mortality in those affected.
Currently, the average age where it has been determined that drugs begin to be eating at age 12, in which the consequences are serious both personal, physical, psychic and social that, according to this, this problem aims to influenceTo adolescents who have the opportunity to take the first years and school, where the largest number of students have this age.
Considered that these substances are consumed in the educational and school units of Ecuador, which affects the image of the institution and students, it is important to seek a solution;For this, it is necessary to have information, truthful, updated, in a methodological, structured and reliable way, which serves as a technical tool to make preventive and corrective decisions to this problem. Generating projects that help benefit adolescents by maintaining their free time in the realization of physical activities that are healthy in the daily life of the human being.
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the stage of human development and growth is defined as adolescence, which is after childhood and prior to adult stage;It is a transition process, with an accelerated rate of growth and physiological development;This period covers between 10 and 19 and is divided, in turn, into two stages: early adolescence (10-14 years) and late adolescence (15-19 years) (WHO, 2017)
Due to these changes for which the adolescent crosses it becomes more vulnerable, within the contexts in which it develops;But these changes not only imply physical and physiological aspects, but the emotional and spiritual sphere.
The greatest desire for a teenager is to become independent, be useful by himself, wishes to waste his life and time in seconds;They care about the present and do not see the future, or the consequences that their actions of the moment could cause them, that is why they seek to relate to other adolescents to talk about the matter of living alone, which would be their benefits and complications;But they do not perceive how is the reality that awaits them.
Many teenagers in their change process until they reach adulthood want to show themselves in different ways to attract the interest of the family group, they want to be themselves;without taking into account the dangers that stalks them;facing problems without knowing how to solve them in a responsible way.
The adolescent process and its evolutionary characteristics, a window of vulnerability to the use and abuse of different substances in adolescence The subject is experiencing a series of decisive changes for his future life. At this evolutionary stage, the universe of values, interests, vital attitudes and adult behaviors remain, if not set, at least oriented, and the personal identity itself is configured, experiencing an emotional, behavioral and physical development that will lead him to try to become independentof his parents and to seek their own identity.
From an individual perspective, we must remember that puberty manifests itself by deep physiological modifications that obviously have important psychological and/or social repercussions, both at the level of concrete reality and at the level of the imaginary and the symbolic.
The body is transformed at a variable rhythm, but globally, facing the subject to a series of body modifications that costs it to integrate and that ensue at a fast pace. Dress or sometimes disguised, the body represents for the adolescent a means of symbolic expression of their conflicts and their forms of relationship.
In the neurobiological field, it is known for a long time, that the higher integrative functions are contained within the cerebral cortex. The human mind depends partly on the brain, which develops in evolutionary sequence for several biological structures and functions.
With puberty adolescence begins, stage in which the brain is subject to countless changes that make it more sensitive to countless stimuli, including the chemical stimuli generated by the different drugs. These stimuli, have the potential to produce changes, which would tend to last over time, generating certain modifications in cerebral circuitry, a fundamental basis of adult addiction.
The prefrontal cortex, structure involved in the trial, planning and decision making, is the last to develop in the adolescent, this can help explain, why teenagers tend to take risks, why these are particularly vulnerable to drug abuseAnd why drug exposure in this critical period can affect the propensity for future addiction.
This emphasizes the relevance of substances considered under the term "entrance door", which would produce neurobiological changes that would increase the response of the CNS to other addictive substances.
The drug use harms the realization of physical activities in adolescence, because on certain occasions you are enclosed in a circle that imposes vice, while on other occasions the drug helps some athletes to have a better performance momentarily causing them causing themIn the same way in long time damage to health and sports performance.
The drug is a need that is recorded as a constant throughout the history of humanity, a situation due to the confluence of social and health factors. Among the social factors, the following could be discussed: consumption of drugs known in cultural societies and contexts that were not before, in addition consumption is basically attributed to the youngest members of society, new drug use such as LSD and amphetamine derivatives,consumption of more powerful preparations and more direct administration routes (intravenous heroin instead of smoked opium; distilled drinks instead of fermented) and the increase in crime to get the precise money to buy them.
The World Health Organization (WHO, 1947) establishes that “health is the complete state of physical, mental and social well -being”, and, in 2000, it prints a new concept of health and understands this “the level of healthenough to be able to work productively and participate actively in social life ”.
These definitions provide an integral health concept that includes the physical, psychological, physiological and social dimensions. Therefore, the concept of health seems that it must currently be treated from an integral perspective of the person.
In this sense, Sánchez Bañuelos (1996) describes the effects or benefits of physical activity for people from the physiological, psychological and social point of view, and presents an investigation where he describes the physical activities of high school schoolchildren and their relationshipWith healthy or not health habits, such as food, alcohol consumption, tobacco consumption, etc. Thus, the benefits of physical activity on health have been documented in numerous reliable studies.
For these purposes, regular physical activity reduces the risk of people suffering from heart attacks, colon cancer, diabetes and high blood pressure;In addition to a possible stroke. It also helps control weight;It helps to have more healthy bones, muscles and joints;reduces falls among older adults;favors arthritis pain relief;The symptoms of anxiety and depression diminish;And it is associated with a lower number of hospitalizations, medical visits and medicines.
Many are, therefore, the data that suggests a multitude of psychological benefits associated with an active lifestyle: humor is reinforced, tension is reduced, anxiety state and levels of appearance of depression are reduced, it increasesThe positive concept of yourself.
59% of people do not perform physical activity, little frequency. In this context, a study showed that there is no motivation in individuals to perform physical activity, which constitutes a risk factor in the production of chronic and young or adolescent diseases to be directed to indiscriminate use of drugs.
To reduce the active growth of adolescents involved in drugs, it is necessary that the family especially parents dedicate that time, love, understanding and understanding towards their children, so that they at this very important stage of their lives undertake the right way andDo not go to drug addiction, which allows them to carry out activities that help their performance such as physical activities that can improve their lifestyle and health, allowing to have a quiet, sociable and admirable life.
- Becoña, e. (2000). Theory Bases that support drug prevention programs. National Drug Plan.
- Briones, w., Hidalgo, h., ALVARADO, J., Noy, e., & Vázquez., A. (208). Causes of addictions in adolescents and young people in Ecuador. Scielo, 22 (2).
- Knight, a. (2000). Drugs and drug addictions in primary care . Foundation of Health Sciences, 205-244.
- Commas, d. (2004). Young people and drug use in Spain. Madrid: Complutense University of Madrid.
- Sword, m. (2003). Adolescence: alcohol consumption and other drugs. In papers of the psychologist, University of Murcia. University of Cornell ,, Nueva Cork .
- Fergusson, d. (2006). Cannabis Use and Other Illicit Drug Use: Testing The Cannabis Gateway Hypothesis. Addiction, 101 (4), 556-569.
- Gil, p., Sixtus, g., Juan, p., & Juan, F. (2010). Physical Activity and Habits related to health in young people: Study Spain. Reflections, 89 (2), 147-161.
- Gomez, n. (2017). Drugs and sport. Spain: Nagusia.
- Javier, c. C. (2019). Prevalence of the consumption of psychoactive substances and associated factors in adolescents between 10 and 19 years in external consultation of infant-juvenile psychiatry of the Vicente Corral Moscoso Hospital 2017. University of Cuenca, Cuenca-Ecuador.
- Lopez, p. (2012). Influence of drug use in university students. Redalyc, 22 (4), 56.
- Maturana, a. (2011). Alcohol and drug use in adolescents. CLINICA CONDES, 22 (1), 98-109.
- Monica, m. (2013). Food habits and physical activity and their relationship with overweight and obesity in the workers of the maritime terminal onshore and offshore of Esmeraldas . Quito.
- Nida, n. Yo. (2010). Preventing drug use between children and adolescents . Addiction, 204-206.
- Ochoa, e., & Agustin, M. (2008). Alcohol consumption and other drugs in the workplace. Scielo, 54 (213).
- WHO, o. M. (2017). Development in adolescence. Obtained from https: // www.quien.int/maternal_child_ adolescent/topics/adolescence/dev/es/
- Pabón, a. (2016). My skin is a canvas. Senses of body modification of young people. Latin American Journal of Social Sciences and Adolescence, 14 (1), 477-491.
- Perez, j., & Francisca, S. (2014). Application of educational guide for the prevention of alcohol and tobacco consumption in students of 8th year, fiscal school Felix Sarmiento Nuñez and particular Innova. Santa Elena: State University Peninsula Santa Elena .
- Scott, e. (2015). Intrafamily communication and its influence on drug use in students of the fifteenth year of basic education of the Norturno ‘Comdte. Rafael Moran Valverde ’from the city of Guayaquil-Ecuador 2015. Guayaquil-Ecuador: University of Guayaquil.
- Valero, a., Juan, r., & M., G. (2007). Relationship between the practice of physical-sports activity and the alcohol consumption of citizens of more than 14 years. Addictions, 19 (3), 239-250.
- Young, s. AND. (2002). Substance Use, Abuse and Depend a Adolescence: Prevalence, Symptom Profiles and correlates. Drug and alcohol dependence (68), 309-322.