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Consequences and types of migration in Venezuela
In all its existence, humanity has been in constant movement and displacement from one place to another in search of opportunities, different reasons or a better quality of life, they also seek to escape something, whether conflicts or persecutions, violence or insecurity, povertyAnd especially for lack of resources. The United Nations Organization defines a migrant as a person who moves or moved “through an international border or within a country, outside its usual place of independent residence of 1) its legal status;2) the voluntary or involuntary character of displacement;3) the causes of displacement;or 4) The duration of your stay.”(UN, 2017)
There are different types of migration, among them is the storm, which is when the person, or the migrant, moves to a place only by a certain period of time, that is, that it will return to their place of origin at some time ordetermined date. There is also the definitive migration, which unlike temporary migration, this refers to when the migrant moves to gold place for a permanent period of time, that is, it does not plan, can or wants to return to its place of origin byThe rest of his life, at least not to live. Internal migration is when migration is within the same region, country or community, and external, is different because it refers to migration outside a region, a country or a community. And finally there are voluntary migration and forced migration. As we can read in the name, voluntary migration is when the migrant moves to another place because the person wanted and decided to make this decision on his own account. And the forced, is when the migrant or the person is forced to leave the region, country or community for different causes, where the greatest causes are persecutions, violence and hunger/ lack of basic resources.
According to the UN Agency for Refugees, people do not stop leaving Venezuela due to violence, insecurity and lack of essential services. Throughout the world there are about 4 million Venezuelan migrants and it is the largest number that the country has reached. (ACNUR, S.F.)
Venezuela has always accepted migrants and refugees around the world and now all people who are forced to leave their country need help from other countries. Many of these migrants do not meet the requirements to be considered refugees, so they do not have legal roles and this exposes them to the exploitation, traffic of people, discrimination and violence.
UNICEF calculates that 1.1 million children, including Venezuelans, need protection and basic services in Latin America and the Caribbean. In the greatest concerns are violence and discrimination against children.
“Human rights norms demand that states allow the entry and registration of children as a previous condition to carry out the initial evaluation procedures of the protection situation, even when they are not accompanied and lack official documentation,They must be sent immediately to specialized personnel so that they can evaluate their protection needs, ”said María Cristina Perceval, regional director of UNICEF.
In the General Assembly of the Organization of American States, they said that the situation in Venezuela was “the greatest crisis in the history of the hemisphere”, where from Colombia, they recorded that 5000 people leave Venezuela per day, which is more than 13%of the population. According to the OAS (OAS, 2019), in Peru, Chile and Colombia on 65.5% of Venezuelans are migrants and countries have up to 90%.
Ana Reátegui, the director of ESAN executive education programs said that ‘from the macroeconomic point of view, the entry of Venezuelans into Peru benefits our GDP because the majority is part of the economically active population. There are doctors, engineers, nurses, and different professionals who would help us a lot, but we must take them out of informality and make them not all concentrate in Lima. There is a shortage of labor in provinces that they could cover ’. (ESAN, 2019) So we can see that external migration in Venezuela is not bad, since it helps and contributes many things to countries that needed that help, one of them being Peru. Lima, its capital, needs cheap labor that can help increase the economy and activate it, so migration also has positive consequences worldwide.
But although everything seems favorable for Peru, not all consequences are good, since due to all the people who have reached this country, the demand for products and needs has increased, and Venezuelans offer to work for less money. Violence has increased, so the Peruvian government has decided to expel all Venezuelans from the country who have a criminal record because they are sure that they are the ones that increase crimes in their country.
In conclusion, migration in Venezuela is a worldwide crisis, since in addition to deeply affecting its country, its economy is affecting other countries and its equal economy. It is a phenomenon never seen before, due to the number of people who leave their country in just one day, the conditions in which they have to live and the problems they have to face every day. Families separate, thousands of people die, diseases abound, they don’t have to eat or take their rights, they are sexual or physically abused, and the saddest thing about all this is that when they arrive at the country where they migrated,They have to fight for the best quality of life they deserve and to which they have the right to have according to their human rights.
- United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. (s.F.). Situation in Venezuela. Retrieved October 2, 2019, from https: // www.ACNUR.Org/Situation-in-Venezuela.HTML
- Esan Graduate School of Business. (s.F.). What are the consequences of Venezuelan migration? Retrieved October 2, 2019, from https: // www.Esan.Edu.PE/SALA-DE-PRESA/2019/04/WHICH-SON-LAS-CONSECTIONS-OF-THE-MIGRATION-VENEZOLANA/
- Notimérico. (2019, May 31). What are the negative effects of Venezuelan immigration in Peru? Retrieved October 2, 2019, from https: // www.Norma.com/Sociedad/News-how-detaches-negative-infraction-venezuelan-PERU-20190530200646.HTML
- UNICEF. (s.F.). Migration crisis in Venezuela: 1.1 million children from all over the region will need assistance in 2019, compared to almost half a million today. Retrieved October 2, 2019, from https: // www.UNICEF.org/es/communications -presea/crisis-migratory-Venezuela-11-Millones-Ninos-Necean-Assistance-2019
- United Nations. (2019, September 16). Migration. Retrieved October 2, 2019, from https: // www.a.org/es/secions/issue-depth/migration/index.HTML
- Voice of America – Writing. (2019, June 28). OAS: Venezuelan migration crisis is the ‘greatest in the history of the hemisphere”. Retrieved October 2, 2019, from https: // www.Voanoticias.com/a/oea-present-in-la-49-Asamblea-general-information-over-crisis-migrants-and-refugee-of-venezuela/4977569.HTML