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CONCEPT OF STATE AND OBJECTIVES OF THE SAME
For millennia, the human being has lived under the yoke of the State, but what is the State? Or, what goal does it have?
According to the author, this meaning varies, for example, some would define it as the set of institutions that have the authority to establish and rule the norms that regulate a society by putting them into practice and being strictly obeyed, having internal and external control over a territory over a territorycertain.
Knowing this, it can be understood that the State is a political organization constituted by stable bureaucratic institutions, which propose and apply rules to a partial or total population within a territorial limit.
That said there is only one question, what is your goal? What purpose does the state exist?
Next we will give two points of view that disagree with each other, Hobbes’ point of view and Hegel’s point of view.
Thomas Hobbes was born on April 5, 1588 in Westport, near Malmesbury, England, was an English philosopher considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy. He died in Derbyshire on December 4, 1679.
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel was born in Stuttgart, Germany on August 27, 1770.
He was a philosopher of German idealism, the last of modernity and one of the most important of his time.
He died in Berlin, Germany, on November 14, 1831.
The political thought and vision of the world of Thomas Hobbes is surprisingly original and remains notable in contemporary politics. Its main issue is the problem of social and political order asking this question. How can human beings live together in harmony and avoid the fear and chaos caused by a civil conflict?. It raises an alternative how to give our obedience to an irresponsible sovereign (a person or group empowered to decide each social and political issue). Because otherwise, what awaits us is a ‘state of nature’ that resembles the civil war or anarchy. A world insecurity situation, where everyone has reason to fear death and where the reward of human cooperation is almost impossible.
That said, there is a question about this position. Do you see human beings as purely selfish? Several parts of his works support such reading, leading some to interpret that their political conclusions can be avoided if we adopt a more realistic picture of human nature. However, there are people who accept that Hobbes himself had a much more complex vision of human motivation.
Hobbes is the father of modern political philosophy. Directly or indirectly, he has set the terms of the debate on the foundations of contemporary political life. Few have wanted their thesis, about the problems that political life mean under an irresponsible sovereign as their only political authority. However, we still live in the world where human authority is something that requires justification, and is automatically accepted by few;a world where social and political inequality also seems questionable;and a world where religious authority faces a significant dispute.
In summary, according to Hobbes, the human being is selfish by nature, this tends to seek every opportunity to be able to have power.
Consider the human as an individualistic species which will always choose to end and climb in the hierarchy to be able to have a greater opportunity to control others.
In his work he says that peace will only be achieved if man gives power to the demon (Leviathan).
That said, Hobbes recommended to leave power in the state to have greater harmony among their involved.
If there is a king you can’t fight for the throne.
From this, according to my understanding of his book El Leviatán, Hobbes recognizes the State as the demon destined to assume the power of hierarchy for the control of the masses being this the mediator to peace among his individuals.
Meanwhile another author who talks about his idea of the State is Hegel.
Hegel examined that free will and political life, as a capacity for self-determination of the subject, constitute his philosophy of history and law.
The certainty of reason, duty as a collective construction, can only be known as an intersubjective duty, in the field of law. The legitimate political order can only be the result of wills that are equally free and affirm as such within a rule of law. Only when our will as a free will confronts an intersubjective interpretation and interest in everyone’s freedom can be spoken, according to Hegel, of reason or social self-consciousness, because this results in a general life that takes place in the conflictof social life according to the concrete notion of a free society. The norms and principles of law that shape political society constitute the practical realization of this intersubjectivity. The practical realization of freedom depends, therefore, on that historical-social self-social self-consciousness and intersubjectively structured by him of civic life through law.
Hegel suggests that when talking about a people we must expose the way in which their spirit is particularized and how the conditions of their particularization are carried out through law, industry, art and science. Hegel thus develops an idea of the State that is based on a political-legal conception of it, as formulating in his philosophy of law: ‘Law is something sacred only because it is the existence of the absolute concept, of self-conscious freedom’. What can be highlighted here in relation to this link between objective freedom and self-determination of individuals is that political society as such, the State, already supposes in itself. The habit of acting according to a universal will. That is, according to a certain historical-collegious awareness that in the midst of social life antagonisms allows us, however, principles of equity and justice regarding the organization of common life in life. The realization of political life as such depends on the coincidence between private interests and the realization of everyone’s freedom in social life;For this reason ‘struggles with particular interests and passions and a difficult and long education are necessary, so that this unification of the ends occurs’