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Computer science and technological development of computers
The technological development of computers. The genesis of this indispensable instrument for humanity, according to Norton (1995), in its book "Peter Norton the entire PC – 5th edition" occurs from the year 1951, denominating it as the first generation, so it is observed that it has been In constant evolution ("update") since manufacturers innovate from the invention of that machine built with vacuum tubes, memories with fine liquid mercury tubes and magnetic drums that revolved at high speed on which a device placed magnetic marks (reading /writing in perforated cards). After this, the second generation is advanced (1959-1964) here, the renovating characteristics of the computers are integrated with transistor circuits, programming with higher level languages, fast, small, better ventilation and using nuclei networks with rings with rings of magnetic material linked to each other (replacing the rotating drums for primary storage) managing to store data and instructions. From this generation, companies use computers, thus reducing labor, since these devices have the ability to perform tasks such as consolidation of records, payroll and accounting, inventory management, purchase and sale of goods and services. Its use contributes to civil aeronautics in air traffic control and flight simulations (Whirlwind i) for pilot training. Later, already in the third generation (1964-1971) and fourth generation (1971 to 1981) integrated circuits and silicon pills (thousands of electronic components in miniature integration) are developed, which helps the construction of smaller machines and smaller machines and fast, which gave off less heat and were energetically efficient. With the invention of the microprocessor or 4004 chip of 4 bits in a 4x5mm space contained 2250 transistors, this, allows processing programs simultaneously (multiprogramming) at that time it begins to talk about artificial intelligence (AI). Other advances are produced between the 70’s and 80’s, such as: the marketing of the personal computer, PC or “Computer Personal” influencing society about the so -called ‘computer revolution’; The same as the creation of the standardized operating system for PC called MS of calculation, graphic packages, among others and, thus improving the interaction between machines and human beings. Simultaneously, information storage devices are invented, such as: hard disk or hard disk; RAM or Random Access Memory (Volatile Memory) and the Diskette or Floppy Disk (8, 5¼ and 3½ inches) among others. The fifth generation (1982-1989) or artificial intelligence, known by its acronym in English, FGCS (Fifth Generation Computer Systems). The purpose of AI is to "equip" computers to human intelligence, having the ability to reason and find solutions, recognize previous processing patterns and sequences, allowing to memorize results and include them in the operational result, you will essentially learn from your own experiences, using Original data to obtain the response through reasoning and retaining those results for subsequent tasks and decision making. It is presented for 1982 Super computer designed by Seymouy Cray (founder of Cray Research Inc 1976) with parallel process capacity. In turn, in the mid-80’s, Magneto-Postic devices such as CD-ROM or Compact Disk-Read Only Memory are invented. In the late 90’s the DVD (Digital Disk or Digital Versatile Disk) appears. In 1998 the USB Flash was invented, with Universal Service Bus technology (compact micro device for information storage such as data, video and audio) entering to replace the previous ones. In the sixth generation (1989 to date) computers or PC have combined parallel/vector architectures, including vector microprocessors (hundreds or thousands of them) working at the same time; In that sense, they manage to carry out more than one million millions of arithmetic floating operations per second (Teraflops).
(Tanenbaum. 2003) In a document entitled "Compute Networks", performs the classification of interconnection networks as follows: Personal Area (Personal Area Network, PAN) Communication between devices; Wireless Personal Area Network (Wireless Personal Area Network, WPAN) Communication between different devices; Local area network (local area network, LAN) relatively small communication such as a room, a building, a ship, or an airplane; Wireless local area network (Wireless Local Area Network, WLAN) flexible wireless data communication; Campus Area Network (Area Network Campus, Can) connects local area networks through a limited geographical area, such as a university campus, a military base, hospital, etc.; Metropolitan Area Network (Metropolitan Area Network, Man) High Speed Network (broadband) that covers a geographical area more extensive than a campus, but still limited. For example, a network that interconnects public buildings in a municipality and the other municipalities, which make up the metropolitan area, with the use of fiber optics; Wide area network (Wide Area Network, WAN) extend over an extensive geographical area using media such as: satellites, interoceanic cables, internet, public optical fibers, etc.; Storage Area Network (Storage Area Network, San) Connect servers, matrices (arrays) of discs and support bookstores, allowing data transit without affecting the networks by which users access; Virtual Local Area Network (Virtual LAN, VLAN) where a group of computers, with a common set of requirements and resources to be shared, communicate as if they were attached to a logical division of computers networks where all nodes can reach others Through Broadcast domain in the data link layer, despite its diverse physical location. This type arose in response to the need to structure equipment connections of a building by means of software, allowing to divide a switch into several virtual points.