Comparative Biology Between Humans And Birds

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Comparative biology between humans and birds


The respiratory system fulfills a vital function for every living being, the oxygenation of the blood, the interrelation between its structure and function are those that allow this objective to be met. One of its main structures for its functioning is the lungs, present in all living beings, for this we will study in a comparative way the functioning and structure of this organ present in the human being in the face of the respiratory structure of a bird, to be specificof a chicken, in this way to be able to demonstrate each of the characteristics, differences and similarities that exist between these two living beings.


The lungs as the main and central organs of the respiratory system, are of great importance for the operation of this system and those responsible for the oxygenation of the blood.  In birds ‹‹ chicken;G.g. Domesticus ››, these represent 15% of their entire respiratory system are small, without bright red, soft, without pleural cavity and with little pulmonary expansion, they are located under the thoracic vertebrae and the ribs which generate impressions ordepressions on the dorsal face of them. On the contrary, the lungs of the human being are of soft, light and spongy consistency with a conical shape, divided into lobes and segments, pink;located in the rib cage and covered by two pleuras a visceral and another parietal and among them an inter -pleural cavity that contains pleural liquid, which acts as a lubricant of the movement of the lungs in the breathing process.

Each of the birds of the birds contains a primary bronchio that is divided into 4 secondary bronchi and in turn into tertiary to which they are called for bronchi and in its smallest termination the aerial capillaries. Unlike the human being, this device contains aerial sacks which are avascular, with elastic fibers, used for air reserves and do not contribute to gas exchange but in respiratory cycle. In the human being we find two primary bronchi, dividing these into secondary bronchials, on the right side a superior and a lower one, and the latter subdividing into two more, while on the left side only two secondary bronchios is subdivided into the left side, in turnThese give rise to the tertiary bronchies and segmentation that end in respiratory bronchioles and alveolar sacks with millions of alveoli in which the gas exchange is performed.

It is estimated that the lung of the human being has 300 to 480 million alveoli. In them hematosis occurs through the breathing process, in which there are two different phases: inspiration, which is the contraction of the muscles and the diaphragm;and the exhalation that includes their relaxation. During this process the respiratory muscles is set in conjunction with the pleural fluid, once the air reaches the alveolos, the gaseous exchange occurs between the alveolocapilar membrane, constituted by the alveolar wall and the wall of the pulmonary capillary, whereCaptures oxygen and carbon dioxide is eliminated.

In birds the lungs do not show volume changes because the air flows unidirectionally, because there is no diaphragm or pleura;These are attached to the dorsal wall of the thorax, however, they have a great functional capacity retaining an almost constant air volume. The difference is that when the respiratory muscles contract are exhaling, and during the inspiration process the air is introduced into the body penetrating the lungs to the capillaries of the bronchials where the gas exchange is performedCharacteristic cover the thermoregulation and acid-base balance and in air sacks (thoracic, flows and abdominals), they are cameras communicated with the lungs that serve for fresh air reserve, regulate the density and flight of certain birds. 


Throughout evolution, these two living beings with a different metabolism, a dwelling and different lifestyle have developed very different respiratory structural components, but with somewhat similar functioning. The birds on their side have a structure not as complex as that of the human being, but if much more functional allowing the air to move unidirectionally, which allows it to maintain an almost constant air volume, in the gas exchange its deviceRespiratory actively participates in the acid-base equilibrium and thermoregulation for its organism, remembering that the lungs of the birds are anatomically and physiologically different from those of the human being, its organs is rigid, not distensible, without the characteristic characteristic of the elasticity thatThey have the lungs of the human being.


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