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Coffee and effects on people with diseases
Coffee has become an almost indispensable drink for many since its effects on energy combined with a rich flavor and aroma for most people. This is why it is important to assess whether consumption is not harmful to those with a diagnosed pathology.
Evaluate the effect of coffee on various pathologies
Know what recommendation will be better for the patient
The rhythm of life continually requires more strict schedules so the consumption of energy drinks, in this case coffee, has increased among other social reasons such as "going for a coffee". Therefore it is important to know the effects that it has on health in healthy people and in that with some disease.
The coffee drink is taken as an infusion that is prepared from the roasted seeds of the fruit of Cafeto, a shrub of the Rubiáceas family. These coffee or beans seeds are contained in the berries that, once extracted, are processed and dried.
There are 66 species that encompass the genus Coffea, although only 10 are grown, and those, two are the most important, since from them the rest of commercial varieties are derived from them. These species are as follows:
- Coffea Arabica (65-70% of world production), cultivated in Central America, South America, Ethiopia, Tanzania and Kenya.
- Coffea Robusta (30-35% of world production), cultivated in Southeast Asia and the rest of the African countries.
1g nutritional content
- Energy 2.4 kcal
- Carbohydrates 0.415 g
- 0.1 g proteins
- Fats 0.005 g
- Potassium 35.6 mg
- Magnesium 3.3 mg
- Phosphorus 3 mg
- Calcium 1.42 mg
- 0.04 mg iron
- Zinc 0.003 mg
Caffeine is the best known non -nutritious component of coffee, this being the reason for the greatest weight for consumption. However, coffee has a multitude of non -nutritious substances that could have an influence on health.
Caffeine acts as a psychoactive and stimulating drug due to its non-selective antagonistic action of adenosine receptors, their main effects are psychostimulants, respiratory, musculoskeletal and cardiovascular, together with modifications in the metabolism of carbohydrates (improvesinsulin sensitivity), among others. It is basically metabolized in the liver by cytochrome P1A2 (CYP1A2)
Bioactive coffee substances
- Chlorogenic acids, and their derivatives constitute a family of esters formed by cinamic acids (caffeics and ferulic, mainly) and quinic acid. A single coffee portion provides between 20 and 675 mg of chlorogenic acids, depending on the type (variety, roasted, processing) and the quantity consumed. It has been proven by several studies that chlorogenic acid helps to regulate blood glucose. It is believed that it acts by reducing the release of glucose by the liver or delaying the absorption of glucose in the intestine. In addition, it has a demonstrated antioxidant activity.
Bioactive substances Biological activity
- Antioxidant chlorogenic acid, atihepatoxico and prevents DM II
- Magnesium improve insulin sensitivity
- Anti -inflammatory cafestol and elevates vdl in blood
- Antidepressant and antioxidant caffeic acid
- Calcium Training and Maintenance OSEO
- Beta-carotene antioxidant
- Antioxidant alpha-tocoferol
Effects on DM II
Pathology characterized by a series of metabolic alterations with the common characteristic of having high blood glucose levels, due to insulin resistance that prevents the passage of glucose to tissues.
Studies claim not to have found clear evidence between the relationship of coffee consumption and the risk of suffering DM II. Studies have been found that defend that certain components of coffee (and also black chocolate) such as some minerals (potassium and magnesium), vitamin B3 and antioxidants (tocopheroles and chlorogenic acid), play a protective role (regulate blood blood cells)in front of DM II.
According to studies, a consumption of more than two coffee cups per day is associated with a substantially lower risk of diabetes. Improving insulin sensitivity and therefore decreasing the risk of DM II, an advantage that is attributed to caffeine, as to another of the coffee components, chlorogenic acid
Effects on DM I
Pathology characterized by a series of metabolic alterations with the common characteristic of having high blood glucose levels, the result of an autoimmune destruction of the beta cells of the pancreas. The production of insulin hormone (in charge of conducting the glucose of the blood torrent to the cells) is poor or even void.
The studies that have been carried out blame the caffeine. It seems that it acts as an intrauterine risk factor for the development of DM I, because caffeine has the ability to cross the placental barrier, thus being able to accumulate in the tissues (especially liver and brain) and cause harmful effects onThe fetus.
Subsequent studies argue that the possible relationship between caffeine and the risk of developing DM i is also associated with sugar consumption, which is added in coffees and other caffeine rich drinks, being able to act as a factor of confusion.
Effects on hypertension
Hypertension is considered when systolic and diastolic pressure values exceed 120 and 80 mm Hg, respectively. It is important to emphasize that this pathology can initially be known by the subject by not noticing symptoms, but it does deteriorate arteries and various organs and can subsequently cause serious cardiovascular events
Caffeine has been and remains a prohibited, not recommended or at least little consumed substance in those who suffer from cardiovascular disorders, especially in hypertensive. This ancient belief comes from the short -term exciting effect produced by caffeine in the body by freeing substances that raise blood pressure (TA) such as catecholamines
(adrenaline and norepinephrine). Fruit of this, many people changed normal coffee (with caffeine) for decaffeinated coffee, although some studies have found elevations of the TA in subjects that have decaffeinated coffee, therefore attributing this effect to other components other than the caffeineNatural coffee.
It has been appreciated that generally acute coronary events can be triggered by stressful, both physical and emotional factors, which cause physiological effects similar to those produced with coffee consumption. As such, coffee consumption could act as a triggering factor of acute coronary events, especially in people who already have base cardiovascular disease although a momentary increase of the TA is proven when coffee is consumed, aIncreased ta not an increased risk of suffering with a chronic consumption of it.
Bone health effects
Osteoporosis is a complex and multifactorial disease, it is characterized by a decreased bone mass together with an alteration of bone microstructure. Although bone mass and bone quality are genetically determined, there are many other factors (nutritional, environmental, lifestyle and age) that also influence bone quality. Calcium is, together with phosphorus, the majority minerals of the bone (80-90%)
Coffee decreases calcium absorption in the digestive tract and also increases urinary and fecal excretion, which can produce a negative calcium balance. However, an obvious association between coffee consumption and worse bone health has not been found. Epidemiological data show a negative effect (caffeine as a risk factor for osteoporosis). This can be explained because the greater the coffee intake or other drinks with caffeine, decreases milk intake and therefore that of calcium.
The general decaffeinated process begins with the soaking of coffee beans still green in hot water, then some type of solvent or active carbon is used to extract / dissolve caffeine. Typically used solvents are methylene chloride or ethyl acetate. Unfortunately with this process, the first batch of grains loses most of its flavor. However, once the solution fluid is saturated by the first lot, the posterior lots retain much of its flavor. In some procedures, the coffee beans of the first lot are re-accreated in the water solution to reabsorb some of the flavor compounds, so over time they can be used to make decaffeinated coffee.
The consumption of coffee itself will not cause damage to the patient, however, if this adds other risk factors your disease can be aggravated. It is important to take tastes in moderation and follow an adequate diet is sick or not.