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China: The end of the 20th century as superpower
The Chinese of the 21st century or also called People’s Republic. It is impressive the development as a nation that China has had throughout its existence, being one of the oldest and most documented cultures in the world, one of the most impressive and important changes that shuddered and suffered all China and even the entire world wasThe great proletarian cultural revolution or commonly called the "Chinese Cultural Revolution", commanded by Mao Tse Tung (Mao Zedong).
Having as a beginning on May 16, 1966 the cultural revolution is characterized by being one of the most devastating events for Asian history, but also one of the most important for the development of modern China as an economic power. Usaped by Mao Zedong, one of the most important characters in the communism of the twentieth century, had as its main objective disintegrate capitalist influences and bourgeois thought in society, government, teaching and art, resulting as a consequence, a large part of the destruction of amillenary culture, hundreds of thousands of death.
Given the predominant figure of a dictator as Mao Zedong was, China crosses a vast change of its culture due to the cultural revolution. This for many of the great historians leads to one of the most unfortunate events in world history;Much the wonderful culture, history and Asian customs of thousands of years old had been lost in less than 10 years of the implementation of the Cultural Revolution. In spite of all the discussions that exist about the negative impact of the cultural revolution, we must also know that there were many specific situations of the revolution that led to a real advance as a nation, China had more than 3000 years of feudalism/imperialism and withThe arrival of Mao, this is declared as president, leading to a new stage of Chinese history. (Jonathan d. Spence, in search of modern China, 689)
From the above, the question arises: what situations of the Chinese cultural revolution established by Mao Tse Tung generated political and economic changes at the end of the twentieth century? The question raised turns out to be relevant to the study of the subject since with this one can analyze and generate a historiographic study of what entails China to be one of the world’s great economic powers at the end of the 20th century after more than 2000 years of aNation with enormous amount of dynasties and underdeveloped (Chinese empire) in economic terms
Through the development of this essay, different variety of both primary and secondary sources such as diplomacy (Henry Kissinger), China: Henry Kissinger will be used, in search of modern China (Jonathan Spence), small red book (President Mao QuotesTse tung), history of the Chinese revolution, Mao Tse Tung, among others.
The following trial will be divided into 3 main chapters and a conclusion, these are made for the best understanding of the reader. The chapters are as follows: Chapter 1: Arrival of communism to power, Chapter 2: The Great March and Chapter 3: Mao in Power. In this way it can be analyzed from the beginning or background, of the revolution (arrival of communism) to the power and influence that the leader Mao had for the development of the People’s Republic.
Arrival of communism to power, the beginnings of Mao
The history of China is currently considered one of the most extensive and most documented in the world, with more than six thousand years old, Chinese history tells from states led by Reyes (ancient), and one of the most importantChina stages, imperialism (it was imperial-dynamic). This was characterized by being a period of great boom and prosperity of Chinese culture as it is normally known in the world, as well as traditions: from art, painting, music, theater, among others.
Throughout the development of Chinese history a great union of society and culture is forged more than three thousand years old and is not until October 10, 1911, which this changes radically, the wuchang uprising occurswhich had the main purpose of definitively overthrow the last emperor that China would have, Emperor Puyi (Xuantong) and end the imperial government. The foregoing entails the Xinhai revolution led by the revolutionary Sun Yat-Sen, creator of the Kuomintang (Chinese Nationalist Party who returns from the United States to be appointed president of the new Chinese Republic who after six weeks in office, yields thePost Yuan Shikai, commander of the only military force capable of unifying the country (Kissinger, China, 000). The beginning of a new stage of China’s history began with a fracturing of the state of great measure. After the failure to establish the new Republic by Yuan in 1916, the power is divided into regional governors and military commanders while the Communist Party of China (PCCH) was formed in 1921.
It was of great importance to China to leave its period of "humiliation", in which China covers mainly as an ungrograde, retrograde and an international diplomatic lack. The above entailed the famous expression of doubtful quality when something is coming from China. All of the above occurred from the opium war, created by the smuggling of it in Great Britain produced in India and China. It is then that the Chinese Communist Party took importance, in 1920 with a fragmented China and after different conflicts between the nationalists and the communists, the Nationalist Party exercises control of the entire Qing empire being led by Chiang Kai-Shek.
Among the important actions of Chiang Kai-Shek are China’s reunification. After a feudal period of more than three thousand years, China is going through a gigantic division between different coalitions (northern military leaders) and the Kuomintang and its allies, which were mainly located in southern China and that is where the expedition beginsof the north that end with a "reunification of the whole country under the government" although this was subsequently discredited since they alliced with the Kuomintang precariously and the leaders retained their armies and control over their territories so there was no reunificationTrue of the country.
China throughout the 18th and 19th century suffers several attempts of domination, but none was really devastating, the conquerors faced such a large country, with so extensive plains in addition to such a large army, and it was not until World War IIthat this becomes a real problem. Revolutionary and divided China between the struggle of nationalism and communism finally after more than 20 years of constant struggle, was threatened by a common enemy, Japan. Throughout Chinese World War II, he joined to prevent Japanese imperialism that began in Manchuria and extended to Taiwan’s island. The Second Sin-Japanese War began on July 7, 1937 and it was not until September 9, 1945 with the international aid of the Soviet Union, the United States and the British Commonwealth that Japan surrenders and satellite countries are returned toChina. After World War II, China started the new start, and this time communist and that today continues.
After the end of the Chinese war, it had a better international relationship, but immediately the war came back with its internal conflicts between nationalists and communists, this time the Chinese Nationalist Party supported by the United States and the Chinese Communist Party by the Soviet Union. In September 1945, the two leaders, Chiang by the National Party and Mao Tse-Tung are summoned to a talk in the capital Chiang, Chongqing organized by the American ambassador Patrick Hurley (Kissinger, China, 000) and finished the meeting they resumeThe hostilities between the two sides, this time the national forces opt for a strategy of the maintenance of the cities and generally with the support of the intellectual people and upper class and the communist forces and their guerrilla army are established in the field. (Kissinger, China, 000).
Through American aid to the nationalist group in China, in the same way not long later Harry Truman sends George Marshall with the mission that lasted a year to encourage the two sides to work each other for the future of China and during the same yearIn 1947 a total civil war begets China, the Communist Party organizes the armed rebellion against the Koumintang resultingthat continues to exist with the purpose of once again reconquering the continent, something that never happened. In this way China becomes a communist and the Government of Mao begins which begins the People’s Republic of China on October 1, 1949 and is held until today.