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Children’s vaccination, bibliographic review
Vaccination has been one of the public health measures with the greatest impact, reducing both mortality and the incidence of infectious diseases and constitute a fundamental tool in public health. Scientific evidence has demonstrated the benefits of vaccines, reducing suffering, physical and psychic sequels and deaths caused by infections.
Vaccines have proven safe. The accumulated experience shows that the serious adverse effects are very uncommon, despite this I need to maintain surveillance looking for the highest level of security.
The effectiveness and safety of vaccines currently available justify confidence in a majority way, both among health professionals and in general population.
According to the latest data published by the Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality (2013), common vaccines that are administered in the first year of life (hepatitis B, diphtheria, tetanus, coughing, polyomyelitis, haemophilus influenzae type B and meningococcus c) show a 95% average compliance in the national territory. In the second year of life, it is also observed how 95% of children receive the triple viral vaccine (measles, rubella and paroditis).
Observed that in recent years there has been a decrease of 1-2% in these percentages because of 5% children do not vaccinate. It is because their parents voluntarily have not wanted to vaccinate them, being able to put their children at risk and should sign a document of non -acceptance of vaccination, recognizing their responsibility for the possible medical, ethical and legal, individual and social consequences of their decision of their decision.
In Spain, according to current legislation, vaccines are not mandatory, except in specific situations of non -controlled epidemics that significantly threaten public health.
The Spanish Pediatrics Association (AEP), through its vaccine advisory committee and its Bioethics Committee, wishes to express its positioning on the obligation or not of vaccines in Spain.
All possible effort should be optimized in making the broadest and better information to society about vaccines and infectious diseases that are prevented with these, with an easy and affordable language for all ages and different sociocultural and idiomatic levels.
WHO is collaborating with countries and associates in order to improve world vaccination coverage. The World Action Plan on Vaccines is a roadmap aimed at preventing millions of deaths through more equitable access to vaccines by 2020. In the last week of April of each year they celebrate the World Week of Immunization, whose objective is to promote vaccination to protect against diseases around the world.
- Seek the best evidence available in the literature on the safety and efficiency of the vaccination of minors.
- Know through a bibliographic review the role that nursing plays within the prevention and dissemination in vaccination and appearance the main causes that give rise to the refusal of certain parents to the vaccination of their children.
- Definition of selection criteria: inclusion and exclusion.
- Search for relevant articles that have been published.
- Selection of titles and summaries that meet the selection criteria.
- Review of articles representing potentially selected studies.
- Data analysis and synthesis.
Descriptive observational study, through a review of the literature of articles that analyze security and efficacy of child vaccination and causes of negativity parents in the face of vaccination of their children.
Variables of the description of the sample:
- Year of publication, type of document, publication country, language.
- Type of study: descriptive observational.
- Scientific database: Dialnet, Pubmed, Take care, academic Google.
- Coding descriptors: Mesh – Vaccines, Vaccination, Parents, Refusal Vaccination. Decs – negative to vaccination.
- Words – Vaccination, parents, child, nursing.
Variables of the content of the sample:
- Safety and efficacy of child vaccination.
- Reasons of child non -vaccination: main factors for which they refuse to vaccinate the population of pediatric age.
- Role of nurse personnel in children’s vaccination: paper developing professionals in promoting immunization and in the face of the vaccination of children’s patients.
- Including – articles that analyze the efficacy of vaccination systematic and non -systematic children and analyze vaccination campaigns.
- Excluded – articles that analyze vaccination in adults or travelers or did not adjust to the study period.
A bibliographic review has been carried out carrying out a search for studies published in the last 10 years in the following Dialnet databases, Pubmed, Take care, academic Google in English and Spanish. Several combinations of the following keywords are used both in English and Spanish: "Vaccination Children and Nursing", "Benefits and Effectivenes and Child Vaccination", "Refusal Vaccination", "Vaccination Children and Nursing", "Benefit and Effective Vaccination Children”,“ Negative to vaccination ”combined with the Boolean and operator and the filters of published in the last 10 years and humans. The search started in 2010 and ended in 2020.
The initial selection of the studies was conducted from the titles and summaries recovered in the databases. Next, the complete publications of previously selected studies were recovered.
A selection was also made between the titles and summaries of the articles found to decide to include or not in this bibliographic review according to the criteria.
In his work of systematic review of literature of effectiveness of vaccination against seasonal flu Valcárcel Nazco with group of authors analyzes vaccination cost-effectiveness in different age groups, including children’s population. Scientific evidence shows that vaccination programs against seasonal flu in school-age children (3-16 years) can be a cost-effective strategy from the health perspective in European countries.
Spanish Association of Pediatrics Recommended for Year of 2020 Maintain the scheme of 2, 4 and 11 months with hexavalent vaccines with conjugated anti-stations 13 -valent. Rotavirus vaccine should be systematic for all infants. 2 dose schemes will be used for triple viral (12 months and 3-4 years) and chickenpox (15 months and 3-4 years). The second dose can be applied as a tetravírica vaccine. Universal systematic vaccination against HPV is recommended, both girls and boys, preferably at age 12, having to make more effort to improve coverage. The 9 genotypes expands coverage for both sexes.
Guillermo Peña Blasco and group of authors publish Cost-Benefice article Varicella Vaccination at Health Center Valdefierro de Zaragoza. Authors conclude that public campaigns for the immunization of children under 4 years with 2nd doses lead to cost savings and are profitable because the price of the vaccine result in a benefit-cost ratio is greater than 1, taking into account that all childrenThey had vaccinated chickenpox and had received a reinforcement dose. A greater reduction in the number of hospitalizations between children aged 3 to 4 years old is expected.
A. Gimeno Diaz de Atauri and V. Modesto I alapont examine articles on the impact of the different varicella vaccination strategies such as vaccinating two doses to all 15-18 months children in front of vaccinating only susceptible adolescents. Authors conclude that indeed, the incidence of severe chickenpox is reduced with the vaccination of adolescents (from 10 to 14 years) health. The main effect is observed in children under 5 years. Although Herpes Zoster’s global incidence, a trend of progressive increase, especially in the elderly, is followed, for this reason, the social efficiency of the universal vaccination of infants is yet to be established.
To improve the vaccination coverage authors Laya Bort Llorca, Laura Perez Ollero propose the active search for incorrectly vaccinated patients. In study he has proven to get an improvement in vaccination coverage at the age of 3, 6 and 14 years. In the first 18 months of life, an active search would not be necessary for frequency of consultations for health reviews. In the group of three to six years the active search is effective. The magnitude of this intervention was very significant, improving vaccination coverage. In the 14 -year group there was a trend of improvement of the vaccination state, although it was statistically not significant.
Doctor Pablo Ricardo Justich evaluates the state of public health when some parents decide not to vaccinate their children against official vaccination programs are exposed to medical and legal risks. Their decision takes away an epidemiological defense of their children susceptible to the disease. The health effects of this current are harmful to these children and for the community. Education and correct communication with the population, epidemiological surveillance and adverse effects, a clear legal framework regarding the responsibilities, rights and obligations of citizens.
In their work Rafael Jiménez Ales and Isabel Carmen Sánchez develop a problem of attention to children whose families reject vaccination. There is still the number of people who fully reject vaccination and are anti -vaccine activists. To consider an ethical and legally acceptable attitude I need the professional for first to report to family properly of all preventive measures and act with sufficient diligence, he clarifies that vaccination is scientifically and humanly effective and safe for the health of their children. Vaccination rejection is a new challenge for pediatricians and nurses, who need knowledge, tools and skills, since their role is crucial to address it.
Author Rosa Piñeiro Albero and group of nursing authors show the effective.
Given this problem, nursing must be attentive and explore the values of parents and their concerns, so they do not make the mistake of putting their children at risk of false information found online, social networks, friends or anti -vacacunas associations. Nurse can provide knowledge before the child’s birth and mostly in first -time parents, integrating information: vaccination calendar, the administration method, corresponding dose number, ingredients, schedule, risks and benefits of vaccines. And, above all, that nursing provides sufficientness to parents to make the best decision for themselves, working from empathy and looking for agreements.
The contribution of vaccines to populations health is a scientifically demonstrated fact. Vaccination is the health activity with the greatest impact in terms of years and quality of life earned.
Vaccinating children is a safe and necessary technique. They are the most vulnerable group, and high coverage is necessary to eradicate some infectious diseases. Only the reduction of infant mortality would be sufficient argument to manage vaccines to children, together with the decrease in long -term disabilities and the improvement of the economy due to the decrease in consultations and hospitalizations, which greatly justify their employment.
Immunization constitutes a relevant issue in nurse practice, since within the care function is essential the prevention of the disease. Being a preventive activity, healthy children are offered, therefore, it is necessary that the damage produced is minimal or non -existent. The available scientific evidence allows us to affirm that the vaccines contained in the programs are safe and have high efficiency and efficiency, overcoming the benefits to the risks.
To achieve higher vaccination coverage, vaccination campaigns should be increased and primary care professionals have to be implied, specifically to the nurse collective, since they are professionals with the greatest capacity to educate and transmit information moreeffective to people who reject vaccination.
The professional nurse reaches its four main functions (welfare, administration, researcher and teacher) in vaccination. They are in charge of community health, creating vaccination and dissemination campaigns, which should enhance their teacher function and disseminate more information in the form of leaflets or posters, to support vaccination campaigns, and especially solve all the concerns that canhave parents and guardians.
- Red Garcia, C. Effectiveness and safety of child immunization. Bibliographic review. 2017. (Academic google)
- Vaccine Advisory Committee of the Spanish Association of Pediatrics. Available at: http: // vaccunasaep.org
- Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality. Vaccination coverage. Statistical data. Available at: http: // www.MSSI.Gob.ES/PROFESSIONAL/HEALTH PUBLIC/PREVROOMOCION/VACCUNAC ..
- Riaño Galán I, Martínez González C, Sánchez Jacob M, and Bioethics Committee of the Spanish Association of Pediatrics. Recommendations for decision -making before parents’ refusal to the vaccination of their children: ethical analysis. AN PEDIAT (BARC). 2013; 79 (1): 50. E1-50. E5. Available at: http: // www.Analesdepediatria.org/es/recommendations-to-dole.
- Valcárcel Nazco C, García Lorenzo B, Del Pino Sedeño T, García Pérez L, Brito García N, Linteto R, Ferrer Rodríguez J, Imaz Iglesia I, Serrano Aguilar P. COSE-EFFECTIVESS OF VACCINES FOR THE PREVENTION OF SEASONAL INFLUENZA IN DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW. Rev Esp Health Public. 2018 Oct 17; 92. PII: E201810075. Spanish. PMID: 30327454 FREE ARTICLE
- Álvarez García FJ, Cilleruelo Ortega MJ, Álvarez Aldeán J, Garcés-Sánchez M, García Sánchez N, Garrote Llanos E, Hernández Merino á, Iofrío de Arce A, Merino Moína M, Montesdeoca Melián A, Navarro Gómez ML, Ruiz-Contreras J;on behalf of the Vaccine Advisory Committee of the Spanish Association of Pediatrics (CAV-AEP);Professional composition and affiliation of the members of the Vaccine Advisory Committee of the Spanish Association of Pediatrics. Immunisation Schedule of the Spanish Association of Pediatrics: 2020 Recommendations. AN PEDIAT (BARC). 2020 Jan; 92 (1): 52.E1-52.E10. DOI: 10.1016/J.Anpedi.2019.10.007. Spanish. PMID: 31901289 FREE ARTICLE
- Peña Blasco G, Blasco Pérez-Aramendía MJ. At Cost-Benefit Analysis of Varicella Vaccination in Aragon. Arch Argent Pediatr. 2017 Oct 1; 115 (5): 432-438. DOI: 10.5546/AAP.2017.Eng.432. English Spanish. PMID: 28895689 FREE ARTICLE
- Gimeno Diaz de Atauri A, Modesto i Alapont V. Routine vaccination of the Vicela-JoSter virus reduces the incidence of severe chickenpox, without altering hospitalizations by Herpes Zoster. Rev. Pediatr. ATEN. Primary. 2014;16: 247-50.
- Bort Llorca L, Pérez Ollero L, Soriano Faura J. The active search for children improve vaccination coverage. Rev Pediat Aten Primary. 2016;18: 151-5.
- Justich pr. Refusal to Have Children Vaccinated: A Challenge to Face. Arch Argent Pediatr. 2015 Oct; 113 (5): 443-8. DOI: 10.5546/AAP.2015.443. English Spanish. PMID: 26294150 Free article
- Jiménez Alés R, Sánchez Fuentes IC. Dilemmas in attention to children whose families reject vaccination. Rev Pediat Aten Primary. 2018;20: 83-93.
- Rosa Piñeiro Albero. Nursing before the refusal of children’s vaccination. Rev. Pediatric Canary Islands. Vol.42, 2018;3: 18-20.
- World Health Organization. World Action Plan on Vaccines 2011-2020;2013. Available at: http: // apps.quien.INT/IRIS/BITSTREAM/10665/85398/1/9789243504988_SPA.PDF
- Aisa Zapata, Elena;Resano Cabezón, Silvia;San Miguel Ordóñez, Lucía;Pérez Pejenaute, Fernando. Nursing role in children’s vaccination. Pulse. 2012.72: 37-39.