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Various studies have been progressively carried out on child exploitation and the different types that exist, in recent years investigations have been carried out which have thrown the average number of children and adolescents who are being exploited in Colombia, one of these studies iswhich made the Colombian Institute for Family Welfare (ICBF) that was published in the newspaper El Tiempo in 2018 in which it indicates that about 869.000 children and adolescents are victims of child exploitation in their work modality of which 357.000 are between the ages of 5 and 15 years and around 512.000 between 15 and 17 years which have been decreasing through campaigns that the ICBF has carried out in conjunction with some entities such as: Mobile Protection Teams (EMPI), Family Ombudsmen, Labor Ministries, Education and Health, would record itNational, the National Employment Service, the Office of the Office.
These programs recognize the negative impact that numerous sources of stress (unemployment, poverty, mobility and social isolation, single mothers, teenage fathers, etc.) They have in family life, as well as the relationship between family breakdown and dysfunction, a poor and unstructured social environment and numerous social problems (school failure, family violence, drug addiction, crime, etc.).
It is revealed that parents who are making their children carry out this practice will be carried out a sanction which corresponds to forcing parents to attend a pedagogical course on the rights of children, in case of compliance, aeconomic admonition, equivalent to the value of one to one hundred minimum legal daily wages, convertible into arrest at the rate of one day for each minimum legal daily salary.
In a study conducted by the National Department of Dane Statistics in 2015, a statistic of the number of children and adolescents who are working for each region of the country are evident, as can be seen in the image.
Types of child labor in the world.
Agriculture and Fisheries: in this sector so wide that it is in most countries is where most children can be found. According to studies by the International Labor Organization, it is said that more than 163 million children work in this sector.
MINING: It is estimated that about one million minors are currently working in mines and quarries in more than 50 countries.
Foundions (ceramics and glass or glass extraction): especially in Asia there are children who carry out this dangerous activity, which have to extract glass loads in furnace of ovens at temperatures that vary between 1.500 and 1.800 degrees.
Prostitution and trafficking: For many years the sexual exploitation of children is a worrying issue around the world and everything indicates that as time goes by time it is increasing.
In addition to these types of work there are others that are not so frequent, and are those that use children as soldiers in wars and conflicts or for domestic services, among others.
Laws against child labor
In Colombia you can find various laws which protect children from child exploitation, which put age limits to parents who wish to put them to work from a very young age, since children must be studying and not working. "The laws and programs that are applied in relation to the regulation of the work done by children incorporate the recommendations of the organization". (Zuker bottle, Laura). This is addressed as if it were an objective, tangible, indubected, unquestionable fact;Each crime means to establish the existence of someone who commits damage, the stalker, and another who suffers it, the victim. Likewise, the role of the actors directly involved in the course of what we call "abuse" is generally analyzed, assuming that there are variables and groups that relate to it by having certain biological, psychological and/or social characteristics.
- Law 12 of 1991: The Convention on the Rights of the Child is accepted.
- Law 515 of 1999: Convention 138 of the ILO is ratified, establishes the minimum age of admission to employment prior authorization from the Labor Inspector.
- Law 704 of 2001: AGE 182 of the ILO endorses, classifies the worst forms of child labor.
- Political Constitution Law of Colombia 1991: The rights of childhood prevail over the rest of the population.
- Childhood and Adolescence Code- Law 1098 of 2006: a co-responsibility is established between the State, the family and society to guarantee the full enjoyment of the rights of children and adolescents.
In addition, in 2012 a series of analysis were also carried out that showed the percentage distribution of what were the main reasons why children and adolescents were working in Colombia and these were the results found, which leave in evidenceThat the greatest percentages indicate that children and adolescents are interested in being able to have their own money and also that they must collaborate in the economy of their homes, the minor percentages reveal to us that there is a belief that the workwill help them get away from vices and be honest people.
The scope of this research will be descriptive, since an analysis of how this problem is like and how it is related to other factors such as: because due to this children do not attend school, the sanctions that apply to adultsthat force minors to work and have been done to reduce this problem.