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Characterization of homicides in Costa Rica
In the present work, the issue of the characterization of homicides in Costa Rica will be covered, some general concepts will be known, as well as that of homicide, also the types of homicides that exist, the laws, penalties and articles that define them and others,In addition, types of people commit more homicides, we will also mention several authors regarding the subject in question.
Various statistics of this phenomenon that have occurred over the years in the country will be placed, some statistics from other countries will also be added to make a small comparison with Costa Rica.
It is very important to understand the issue because many do not know of it or have erroneous ideas about it, with respect to what is a homicide and also of the types of homicides that exist and the penalties that are established in the codes for theseTypes of crimes.
A homicide is ‘it is a term that comes from the Latin homicidium and that refers to the death of a human being caused by another person’. A homicide is all done in which the person dies by the action of another, a homicide can be with intention or without it, in the right to this it is called intent that means that the person knows or not what he is doing,The intent can influence the type of penalty that is given to the alleged "murderer", other things that influence the imposition of the penalty is the condition of the person who performs the execution (if it presents any mental or others) . It is a crime against people’s life.
In Costa Rica every day we can observe at the Internet sites (social networks), in newspapers and in the news new cases of homicides, however, our country is not the only one that receives news like this day by day, but also happensIn most countries, since the increase in homicides has grown in recent years.
There are 2 classes which are classified as: voluntary and involuntary.
- Volunteer: It is done with total knowledge of things, with intention it can be simple or qualified.
- Involuntary: It is one that can be guilty in these cases there are much for recklessness
There are many ways for which a person can perform a homicide, these cases in their entirety occur with intent, as well as:
- Tenne homicide: It is when a person introduces poison in some food that the person will consume.
- Homicide by fire: the murdere.
- Homicide by submersion: occurs when the murderer drowns in a liquid substance to the person, in most cases it is in water.
- Homicide for alevosía and cruelty: this is not in itself a type of homicide but that it refers to the homicides that occur by betrayal and with excessive malice.
- Homicides typified in the Criminal Code of Costa Rica. (Laws and penalties)
Several types of homicides are established in the Criminal Code of Costa Rica. The same will be mentioned and an explanation will be given. In addition, we will know their sorrows and important aspects.
Article 111.- Who has killed a person, will be punished with prison from twelve to eighteen years.
This article indicates that it is all that person who kills another, as we can see the penalty is given in a range of 12 to 18 years in prison, this penalty is established by the judge destined in the case, he chooses the years that he will imposeto the alleged murdere.
Article 112.- Prison will be imposed twenty to thirty -five years, whom he kills:
- To its ascendant, descendant or spouse, consanguineous brothers, to their manceba or concubinary, if they have procreated one or more children in common and have led marital life, at least during the two years prior to the perpetration of the fact.
- To one of the members of the supreme powers and on the occasion of their functions.
- To a person under twelve years of age.
- To an internationally protected person, in accordance with the definition established in Law N.º 6077, Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes against Internationally Protected Persons, including diplomatic agents, of August 11, 1977, and other provisions of International Law.
- With alevosía or cruelty.
- Through insidiously supplied poison.
- By an ideal means to create a common danger.
- To prepare, facilitate, consummate or hide another crime or to ensure their results or seek, for themselves or for another, impunity or for not having achieved the proposed purpose when trying another crime.
- For remunerative price or promise.
- To a while of the police, municipal and other public police forces, whose competence is provided by law, provided that it is in exercise, for cause or because of their functions
In the case of this article we can see that it has many subsections, of the most important to mention is when it is against a relative up to 3rd degree of consanguinity, that is by hired, that is a child under 12 years, the range of penaltyIt is 20 to 35 years in prison, the penalty is established by the judge within the range that establishes the code.
Especially attenuated homicides.
Article 113.- The penalty of one to six years will be imposed:
- Who has killed a person being the agent in a state of violent emotion that circumstances make excuses. The maximum of the penalty may be increased by the judge without exceeding ten years if the victim is one of those included in the first paragraph of the previous article;
- Who with the intention of injuring will cause the death of another;Y
- To the mother of good reputation that to hide her dishonor she dictates her son within three days of her birth.
This article mentions violent emotion, this is when a person is out of reality due to anger, aggression or sadness for something he saw or told him and he reacts and kills the other or other people, also when by intentionIn injury he ends up killing and when the mother kills the newborn three days after he was born, the range of penalty goes from 1 to 6 years.
Homicide for mercy
Article 116.- Prison of six months to three years will be imposed, which, moved by a feeling of piety, will kill a serious or incurable patient, given the serious and insistent request of this even when he mediates kinship bond.
It occurs when a sick person asks another to kill him when he is in a state of terminal or incurable disease, it can be seen as a type of euthanasia, however, he is illegal and punishable by 6 months to 3 years for that action, asIn all cases the judgment judge chooses the amount of penalty for the accused.
Article 117.- Prison will be imposed from six (6) months to eight (8) years, whom because of matte to another. In the adaptation of the penalty to the person responsible, the Court must take into account the degree of guilt and the number of victims, as well as the magnitude of the damages caused.
This article is more extensive however this is the most important thing to highlight, its range is 6 months to 8 years in prison.
Homicide and its situational characterization.
It is proposed to identify trends, the evolution and incidence of variables that influence both the victims and the perpetrators, it is sought to restore background and experiences of the interaction between the victim and the victimizer, information from personal counts or official files full of information full of informationmore detailed, seeks an empirical generality rather than theoretical about personal victimization.
When addressing content on programs to intervene and evaluate violence, the characteristics presented in violent acts are announced, it does not only depend on the power of an individual, but rather fits with timely occasions to execute a criminal action, which suggests aclose interaction between internal and external components to the active agent.
It is assumed that the motivation of the aggressor is an essential condition of the situational trilogy for predatory crimes: this trilogy includes three points;motivated criminal, attractive white and absence of effective protection.
The theories of opportunities were evaluated, it is mentioned that a careless aspect was the motivation to commit crimes, which requires a set of values in the active subject to define behavior, another element is focused violence, which includes police patrolling, at points characterized by being criminal or prone to said action, this point requires the control of violence and homicide, here direct attention is changed to the aggressor individual to the prone to criminal concentration.
These sites provide timely sources for the commission of crimes since they present establishments that attract motivated criminals, are places of easily accessible and do not have surveillance and have multiple potential targets.
The task that criminologists would face would be to determine the interdependence between motivation and opportunity, assuming that criminals can manipulate the latter to preserve control of the situation.
Certain factors that influence the particular case of homicide are mentioned: lack of family and religious control, socio -economic disparities, irregular urban development, exclusion, drug markets, masculinity culture and availability of firearms.
Violence is used as a claim or expression to deficiencies, due to the growing variables present among victims, perpetrators and encounters between them, including forms of extreme violence such as homicide, new possibilities of integration have been placed to propose to proposeand explanations about victimization and violent crime, investigations have expanded to identify factors and variables with the dynamics of interpersonal violence.
These include relations between victims and perpetrators, escalation of conflicts, intensity and expressiveness of violence measured by wounds and damage, as well as displacement and neighborhood or closeness between victims and perpetrators, all these variables provide knowledge about the dynamics of violence, facilitateThe review and elaborate theories about the explanation of violence, but above all helps develop proposals for the treatment and containment of the same.