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Characteristics of the Managers and Leaders of the 21st Century
The current world where the companies of the 21st century operate, to achieve subsistence and be successful, is characterized by turbulence and constant change. This turbulence is framed by current challenges facing organizations in the context of digital and technological transformation, globalization and uncertainty. This requires, more and more, the need to have managers that have the essential characteristics to lead organizations towards success. The main characteristics that a 21st century leader must have are: technological skill and understanding, being a strategist and innovative, adaptation and promotion of change, effective communication and emotional intelligence. Next, each characteristic tied to the current challenges will be explained and detail.
Technology and digital age have brought us an increasingly globalized world where space and distance barriers have disappeared. The context where the organization develops is characterized by uncertainty and turbulence, which is directed by a technological revolution and a globalized economy causing companies to increase the speed with which they learn to survive in that environment (Schreiber & Carley, 2006). A successful leader must have vast knowledge in the use of technology used daily in organizations, with special emphasis on use and, even more, understanding of digital applications. The importance of social networks in the promotion, marketing, communication and even validation of companies today is undeniable. An efficient manager must at least dominate the use of the main social networks used in the current business mute, it must understand in depth the implications that are created with them. The new technologies and management models have framed a number of innovative proposals and ideas that help a great variety in management decision making, modern managers are exposed to competitiveness and many pressures regarding the speed with which the Modern Management World (Barajas, Esteban, Méndez & Herrera, 2019).
This speed of the organizational environment in which the managers of the 21st century are unequivocally required that they develop innovative strategies that allow them to subsist and compete. Develop, plan and implement management strategies that are consistent with your company and environment must be an irreplaceable characteristic for current leaders. It is time to rethink the training of leaders in the context of the organizational strategy (Lasio, 2008) to achieve the necessary integration and learning within the organization and establish the new leadership process in companies. An organizational strategy that encourages organizational learning will set up the basis for a strong organizational culture, in which competitive advantages are achieved through learning motivated by a managerial strategy that fosters it and rewards it.
To achieve these competitive advantages, the manager must be an agent of change, a leader who is adaptable to changing situations of the environment and that fosters the change that helps learning. There has been a change in thought that has caused a fading of rationality and bureaucracy as predominant structures as well as the emergence of organizational structures that are based on diversity and that demand flexibility in their configuration (Kuhner, 1999). Kuhner refers to organizational change, establishing as its main point in the work of it that to the extent that organizations have transformed leadership theories and their assumptions should also change in such a way that they reflect and have applicability to the context where They develop. The development of a culture that values and respects new ideas and creativity is important, which tolerates failures, which promotes risk taking, learning and change (Lasio, 2008). The constant changes that will continue to occur and the transformation that this will imply in companies and, therefore, in organizational leadership theories that develop and use within them will be understood. It is important to recognize the role that leadership can exercise in modifying culture (Wallis & Dolley, 2005). It is based on the fact that the pressure of the organizational changes of the time will intensify every day, and it is necessary to face them with a leadership that allows the development and communication of new perspectives, making adjustments in the mission, structure and management of resources Organizational. The leader must be an agent of change and shed any hierarchical investiture (Maestres, 2006) to achieve his goals.
The above must be framed in effective communication by leaders, a communication that is consone with their actions. There must be a harmony between his words and actions, achieve credibility and confidence through his words. Managers must be consistent to foster teamwork. Be a leader who promotes changes or new perspectives through direct communication that establishes honesty and respect as guides for the same. An effective manager tries to understand to be understood and thus make a habit of effective communication (Barajas, et al., 2019).
A quality or characteristic that is indispensable in a current organizational and business environment is emotional intelligence. Without a doubt, it is this emotional intelligence that allows leaders to go beyond normal tactics to undertake a path to success. When talking about the skills or qualities necessary to exercise good leadership, reference must be made to the so -called emotional intelligence that is the ability to understand and manage the emotions of oneself and others (Jin, Seo & Shapiro, 2008). Emotional intelligence is divided into five practical skills: self-consciousness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy and social skills (Goleman, 1998). Within the ability of self-aware. Regarding self-regulation, Goleman (1998) says that it allows us to handle the moods, impulses and resources thus generating emotional skills of self-control, reliability, consciousness, adaptability and innovation. Thus, impulses and emotions can be handled, maintaining flexibility to adapt to change, feel comfortable with new situations and assume responsibility for their own work performance by maintaining integrity and honesty. Managing their own emotions, according to Goleman, does not imply for the individual a suppression of them but to keep out the distressing emotions when doing a job to be able to stay in a positive state (Bernhut, 2002). This positive state must reach others promoting the third ability of emotional intelligence, motivation. This refers to the emotional trends that guide or facilitate compliance with established goals (Goleman, 1998). Motivation, as established by Goleman, contains as emotional competences the impulse of achievement, commitment, initiative and optimism. Highlighting for the present issue the commitment that must be given as axis for leadership in new organizations, in this context, leadership must be understood as the ability of those who direct a team to create a shared vision and make it reality through motivation and commitment of each of its members (Master, 2006). To achieve this motivation in others, the empathy that arises as the fourth ability exposed by Goleman for emotional intelligence cannot be separated. The emotional competences that make up empathy are the compression and development of others, the orientation service, enhancing diversity and political consciousness. With these competences, it will be allowed to be aware of the needs and feelings of others, anticipate the real needs of customers, train to read the emotions of the group and in turn understand the power of relationships between its members. Regarding enhancing diversity, Goleman refers to cultivating job opportunities through different types of people. Diversity is defined as the characteristics of an individual who mold their identities and the experiences they have in society (Ceto, 2006) and we must keep in mind that more diversity will not create only more challenges but also create greater benefits (Byars & Rue, 2006). Finally, Goleman says that fifth skill is that of social skills that implies being an expert to induce desired answers in others and to achieve this objective, influence, communication, conflict management, leadership, leadership, are needed as emotional competences and be a change catalyst. This refers to devising effective tactics of persuasion, openly listening to others and providing consistent messages, managing and guiding others in their individual and group character and being the initiator of new situations.
In conclusion, the current context and business environment have defined those characteristics of a good leader. It has been seen how this generalized turbulence and amplified by globalization has created the need for managers that dominate the use of technology. This domain should not be based only on technical knowledge, but, the involvement of business technology today. In defining a strategy that translates into a structure that fosters innovation as a shield to face uncertainty. In being an agent of change and managing others to adapt to change using the tools provided and promoting organizational learning. All of the above framed in effective communication by the leader, communication that will obtain greater fruits if the manager has emotional intelligence. A new leadership conception is needed that aims to allow the necessary inspiration, cooperation and interdependencies. This will form flexible structures supported by integration and communication as key and important factors. In summary, establish a leadership focused on shared values and beliefs that arise from a system that fosters innovation and creativity. Achieve decentralization of flexible decisions and hierarchies with a tendency to autonomy, forming structures supported by integration and communication as key and important factors. The manager must have as a goal to establish a leadership focused on shared values and beliefs that arise from an organizational system prepared for the 21st century.
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