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Changes and growth growth
The City of Buenos Aires followed the principles stipulated by the laws of the Indies and was raised with the criteria of foundation of Spanish colonies: Damero form with square apples and streets in grid. The cities founded by the Spaniards in America revolved around a main element that was the square. The city were divided into equal elements, normally the grid, one of them was not built giving rise to the Plaza Mayor and around it the political power was established (buildings where the administration is exercised: local governments such as councils and real as real asViceroyal Palacios, General Captainies, etc.) and ecclesiastical as well as the homes of the most relevant people of the square was surrounded by Portales and from it left the main streets (they started from the four angles of the square).
It was growing around the Plaza Mayor (current Plaza de May. In front of the Plaza Mayor, a space for the fort was also reserved (current is the Casa Rosada) and the Cabildo. And around this nucleus the city was growing: a first ring formed by the most accommodated classes (as conquerors according to their range) and religious institutions, another second with the rest of the social classes. A last peripheral area around this nucleus where industrial and agricultural activities were carried out and population density was minor.
In 1816 the city began to gain popularity as the capital of the newly formed United Provinces of the Río de la Plata, with the growth of the city this began to experience changes such as the widening of its streets. In the mid -nineteenth century, the city grows by the north, the south and west. The city grows in parallel to the population (more than 90.000 inhabitants during this time) and radially, form that still retains. In the central area large avenues were planned to improve the communication framework of the city.
Next to the city, villages were growing whose activity was closely linked to that of Buenos Aires and could grow as it did (like Morón, Moreno). With economic growth and the arrival of immigrants the population increased and the industry developed. The city transforms and changes its hierarchy, taking each neighborhood different functions. The most wealthy class, which was traditionally in the southern zone, moves to the north of the city, to the current retirement, recoleta and palermo neighborhoods. The center of Buenos Aires, and a modern city, was filled with shops and banks.
In the 2nd half of the century the first current water network is created, which has limited dimensions. During this period the city still has the same traditional way growing south. Streets are paved and new new ones are drawn. Hospitals and schools are built and the tram network is installed, which further encourages the expansion of the city. By 1910 the subway is built, the first in South America and the British companies draw gas, electricity and sewerage systems. Transportation is densified and reaches the most remote areas of the city as Belgrano. Which continues to drive a radial growth of the city.
With the incorporation of the car into the urban life of the Buenos Aires the city changes and roads are built for circulation around the 20s. The city continues to grow in the twentieth century and consolidating. In a few years, the population of the country is concentrated in the urban area of Buenos Aires, and this dynamic will continue in a long period. During these years he experiences unequal growth between the north and south of the city. In the north the wealthy class continues to be used for better resources, including better transport services. In the south instead live the workers’ classes and the industry is located.
International immigration began to decline, but continued to arrive from the rest of the country, which allowed the consolidation and growth of the metropolis that stopped in the middle of the century, in this the industrial development had a very important role, which had different phases. The industry first concentrated to the south, next to the working class: consumer goods, chemical and textile products. The industry changes, the metallurgical and petrochemical sector are favored. Then he moved to the periphery and finally north of the city, changing the configuration of it. For the urbanization of the periphery, the division of the territory into lots was needed, sometimes not suitable for the building.
While in the urban center the typology of the buildings changed and the vertical property was consolidated. The city becomes a expensive place to live and many people move to the outskirts of the city and to areas with less urbanization such as Villa Crespo with worse conditions. The city is stratified according to the social class inside out according to the economic level of its inhabitants. DES regularization of rental price further enhanced the polarization of the city and the difference between the poorest and most well -off areas. In the center of the city there are financial, business and administrative activities of the city and the country. On the outskirts, private urbanizations also arise. The center is renewed for tourism and many neighborhoods are revitalized and recovered their historical heritage while these areas are revalued.