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Central Nervous System Relationship (SNC) with cognitive learning
The alterations of the central nervous system (CNS), may be directly to relate them to cognitive learning especially of children who have difficulties in their school area due to their pathological disturbances. Learning disorders are neurodevelopments that imply complex biological and environment interactions. These can be:
Specific learning disorders: dyslexia (reading disorders)
Dyslexia is the most predominant and better studied learning disorder. Prevalence studies from different countries give figures between 5 and 17% of the population. Population analysis do not express differences in prevalence according to sex. This disorder persists throughout life. From the scientific point of view, the reading process begins since the 4 -year -old children acquire what is known as phonological awareness; "Phonological consciousness consists in the ability to understand that words are formed by sounds, and that these sounds are divisible units in syllables and phonemes" (Imartinez, 2015), therefore each sound is fixed their corresponding letter and begin to make the correspondence Lyrics-Deed expected to be able to read. This reading route is called the phonological route and begins with the visual entry of the word, it arrives through the optic nerve to the occipital region, and from there to the parieto-témporo-stretch-collipital cross-up left (angular and supramarginal turn) , which is responsible for carrying out grapheme-phonema correspondence. The second route is known as lexical route, it analyzes the orthographic representation and carries out the meaning. There is no specific test for the diagnosis of dyslexia, it is only based on medical records and neuropsychological study. Dyslexia can be treated by different specialists, but it is generally. In addition to the family, it is very important that parents are informed from the first moment about what dyslexia and their role in this regard.
Specific Learning Disorders: Discalculia (calculation disorders)
Discalculia is a specific disorder characterized by difficulties in numerical processing and calculation. It manifests itself in children with normal intelligence and conventional education. Like the rest of learning disorders, it has a neurobiological base and probably a genetic mechanism. It is presented in a comorbid way with other neurodevelopmental disorders, that is, discalculia interacts with several disorders at the same time. In the calculation, various cognitive functions are involved: attention, executive functions, memory, language and perception.
Some recent studies relate the low working memory with bad performance in arithmetic skills in children with this defectiveness. The manifestations they present is the attention disorder that could fail in a mathematical operation if your working memory lost information during execution. The neuronal bases of numerical processing have been investigated in analyzed by the structural and functional neuroimaging techniques. It is remarkable that human beings have an innate numerical capacity, which from the first months develops thanks to the interaction with the environment and education. This innate capacity is called numbers and allows us.
In addition, this ability has been related to specific brain regions, thanks to IRMF (functional magnetic resonance). The key region for numerical sense and numeric processing in general is the bilateral intraparietal groove, located in the parietal lobe, whose activation has been verified in all numerical activities in children and adults. In the same lobe, the left angular turn is also committed, in charge of processing the calculation tasks in which the language intervenes such as: the memorization of arithmetic facts, multiplication tables and basic operations of exact calculation. The posterior upper region of the same lobe, also acts during viso -spatial tasks. It is known that the prevontal cortex intervenes whenever we carry out any activity related to the calculation, since the working memory and other related executive functions depend on it. To diagnose this disorder, an exhaustive medical history is made with personal and family history, description of difficulties, existence of other alterations in the area of learning or behavior, review of school reports, comparison of family opinions and school. Having the medical history, the evaluation of the neuropsychological will allow us to optimize if it presents difficulties that cause an alteration in cognitive functions and discard possible associated deficits. A treatment with effect would be to improve knowledge of the numerical system through multiple representations, consolidate the mental numerical line, reinforce the decimal system, strengthen the concepts of unity – dozen – hundred and last and last understand the basic operations.
This disorder in most studies on the prevalence of ADHD show that men are proportionally more diagnosed than women, generally, from 3 to 1. However, ADHD, it happens to be a biological alteration, both boys and girls who manifest symptoms of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. This could have a consequence in its school environment for its excess motor activity. The areas where the student with ADHD usually witnesses more difficult are, in spelling, reading comprehension, mathematics (mental calculation and problem solving), oral and written expression (temporary organization of narrative discourse and graphics and little careful presentation of the works ). The decrease in memory in the work of people with ADHD intervenes negatively in cognitive performance and is responsible for low reading comprehension, among other deficits. Rarely, it is related to dyslexia (Sans, Boix, Colomé, López-Sala, & Sanguinetti, 2017). The signs and symptoms that individuals with ADHD manifest are composed of two factors: the attention deficit and hyperactivity and impulsivity. According to Barkley, the first mentioned factor is characterized by having errors in maintaining attention correctly in the realization of academic, social, labor or recreational activities; While in the second factor, there is a large number of movements that do not have a specific purpose and act in a non -reflective way, although this form of behavior can generate conflicts in the person who presents this disorder (galarza bouquets, 2015).
We conclude that our central nervous system is extremely complex and undoubtedly one of the most important human body systems. Because it allows us various functions such as thought, emotions, perceptions, the understanding of the external world and many unresolved unknowns that can perform this organ no more than 2kg (brain). To be able to understand a little more about its functioning we can govern ourselves by the proposed areas of the neuroanatomist Brodman who assumed 52 cortical areas properly of the brain, thanks to this distinguished scientist we can infer which disorders can be presented according to the affected area.
It should be noted that the first researcher and even considered a father of modern neuroscience was the doctor specialized in pathological anatomy and histology Santiago Ramón y Cajal, who won the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1901.
The relationship that the central nervous system (CNS) has with cognitive learning is immeasurable, but still it has been possible to study the neurological substrates of dyslexia, discculia and ADHD, which in my consideration are relevant to know them.
Regarding prevalence of hyperactivity care disorder (ADHD) in the general population, the Association of Psychiatry and various investigations claim that approximately 3 and 10% of the population present this disorder.