Central Nervous System And Addictive Medicines Abuse

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Central nervous system and addictive medicines abuse


The use of controlled prescription drugs and drug abuse, by self-administration of psychotropic drugs, leads to pharmacodependence. This type of consumption produces physical and psychic suffering to the person and multidimensional alterations that are projected towards family, society and work.

The problem caused by drug abuse is considered of the utmost importance and deserves the concern of various entities with society together2. The substances causing pharmacodependence have become a multidimensional problem, not only limited to the relationship between the person and the drug, but also important to consider the interaction between them in a specific context, attending to values ​​and beliefs, its social, economic and political characteristics, including work.

The important human dimension of work should not be ignored, both in consequences of use and abuse, which can affect both relationships and the actions of work organization and development, and the factors capable of intervening in the complex examination of Pharmacodependence. Professions at risk for this abuse, are those that develop their activities in stressful environments, night work and that require constant attention, in addition to professionals who are in constant contact with these drugs or the ease they have of accessing them, by What its use is increasingly regular in the work environment, altering labor, family, interpersonal and health relationships.

The World Health Organization (WHO) establishes that the proper use of medicines indicates that patients receive appropriate drugs for their clinical needs, at doses adjusted to their particular situation, for a specific period of time and at the minimum possible cost. The inappropriate clinically use of drugs represents a serious problem worldwide, it is estimated that more than half of all drugs are prescribed, dispensed or sold inappropriately; If the addictive potential of some of them is added to this situation, the problem is complicated and can get worse.

The abuse of controlled prescription medications is understood as the use of the same, without the corresponding medical indication, in a different way from the prescribed, or to achieve the experience or feelings that causes. The abuse of prescription medications, such as those used to treat pain, attention deficit disorders and anxiety, constitute a serious social and public health problem, which negatively impacts the physical and psychological health of whom They consume them affecting their family, school, work and social life. Among drugs likely to create dependence are controlled prescription medications, which must be formulated by a doctor under strict control, precise doses and for a certain time.

Although many medications can be abuse, among which are observed more frequently are: opioids, generally prescribed for treating pain; the depressants of the central nervous system (SNC), indicated in the treatment of anxiety and sleep disorders; and stimulants, more frequently prescribed for the treatment of attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity.

Opioids are substances that calm pain. Reduce the intensity of painful signals that reach the brain and affect the brain areas that control emotions, which decreases the effects of a painful stimulus. Its mechanism of action is by adherence to opioid receptors, located in the brain, spinal cord, gastrointestinal tract and other organs in the body. By adhering these drugs to their receptors, they reduce the perception of pain. In addition, they can produce drowsiness, mental confusion, nausea, constipation and, depending on the amount of the drug consumed, they can depress breathing. Some people may experience an euphoric response, since these drugs also affect the brain regions involved in gratification. Individuals who abuse opioid use can try to intensify their experience when taking drugs in different ways to prescribed. Your abuse or even a single large dose can cause severe respiratory depression and death. The usual use or abuse of prolonged opioids can lead to physical dependence and, in some cases, to addiction.

CNS depressants, sedatives or tranquilizers, are drugs that can decrease brain activity, which makes them useful for the management of anxiety and sleep disorders. Among these medications are cited: benzodiazepines, used to treat anxiety, acute stress reactions and panic attacks, are tranquilizers and treat sleep disorders in the short term. In general, they are not indicated for consumption for a long time, due to the risk of developing tolerance, dependence or addiction. In addition, there are non -benzodiazepine sleep medications, chemically different, but act on the same brain receptors of benzodiazepines and with less side effects and dependency risk. Barbiturates are also cited, used less frequently to reduce anxiety or help sleep problems due to greater risk of overdose. However, they are still used to treat convulsive disorders. Most CNS depressants act on the brain affecting the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) that facilitates communication between brain cells. Although the different kinds of CNS depressants work in a unique way, it is through their ability to increase the GABA, and thus inhibit brain activity, which produce an effect of drowsiness or calm that is beneficial for those who suffer from disorders of anxiety or sleep. Continued use can produce physical dependence and withdrawal syndrome when the use is reduced or stopped sharply.

Stimulants instead increase the state of alert, energy and attention, as well as increase blood pressure, heart rate and respiratory. Historically, they were used to treat respiratory problems, obesity, neurological disorders and other ailments. Currently, they are prescribed to treat attention disorders, narcolepsia and sometimes depression. They act similarly to monoamines, brain neurotransmitters that include norepinephrine and dopamine. The effects of dopamine that induce feeling of euphoria increase when stimulants are taken for non -medical reasons. Repeated use of some stimulants can lead to feelings of hostility or paranoia, even psychosis.

All these cited drugs, being available to the health professional who performs in the emergency room, operating room, or interned, facilitates and favors consumption. The abuse of these medications has serious consequences, first personally and socially; The person begins to experience great changes and alterations in sleep, behavior and personality. Subsequently, health repercussions become more significant; producing dependence. Thus, how can eating various medications affect health without medical supervision or indication of use and the fact of being part of the medical campus does not remove the probability of depending on these medications and falling into addiction. For this reason, self-medication is not constituted in the treatment of situations of work stress, much less for health maintenance, but could cause dependence and addiction, along with the different consequences of consuming it for a long period of time and without dose control. self-medication, has great repercussions on health generating dependence and addiction.

All psychoactive medications, without exception, produce side effects. It is dangerous.

Of course, this is a public health problem that affects health personnel and patients. And it is that the conditions in which doctors and nurses work seem like a perfect cultivation broth for addictions: few hours of sleep, large stress loads and also have free access to highly addictive medications. 

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