Case Of Genetic Modification

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Case of Genetic Modification


The genes are the ones that mold us as individuals and as a species. Genes also play an important role in our health. Thanks to the advances in DNA sequencing, scientists have been able to identify genes that affect our probability of acquiring diseases or health conditions. Modifying genes in living cells is not an easy task, but recently a new method has been developed that promises to dramatically improve the ability to edit the DNA of any species, including human beings.

The CRISPR method, for its English cycles "Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats", Short Palindromic Regulations grouped and regularly interspected, is based on a natural system used by bacteria to protect infections caused by viruses. When the bacterium detects the presence of a virus, it produces two short RNA chains in which it contains a sequence that pairs with the DNA sequence of the invading virus. 

These two RNAs form a complex along with a protein called Cas9. Cas9 is a nuclease, a type of enzyme that is capable of cutting the DNA. When the sequence that stops with the DNA of the invading virus, called RNA guide, finds its "target" inside the virus genome, CAS9 cuts the pent of the DNA disabled the virus.

Recently it has been corroborated that the process can be applied not only to cut the DNA of a virus, but any type of DNA sequence in precise and predetermined places, changing the guide RNA to stop the place you want to modify in the sequence. This procedure can not only be performed in test tubes but also within the core of a living cell. 


Once in the nucleus, the complex adheres to a short sequence called PAM. The cast9 unfolds the DNA and stops it to its "target". If the pareo is completed, CAS9 uses two small molecules that act as small scissors to cut the DNA. When this occurs, the cell will try to repair the cut, but the repair process is a prone to errors in the sequence, causing mutations that can deactivate the gene.

This happened to researchers to study their function. These mutations occur randomly, so scientists must be very precise. These mutations can be repaired, replacing the mutant gene for a healthy copy. This can be achieved by adding a DNA sequence containing the desired sequence. 

Once the CRISPR system has made a cut, we proceed to use a sequence that stops with the cut ends of the DNA, recombined and replacing the original sequence with the new version. This process can be done in cultivated cells, including stem cells that can generate different types of cells. They can also be performed in fertilized ovules, allowing the creation of transgenic animals with desired precise mutations.

Different to other methods, CRISP can use several genes at the same time, which means an advance in the study of human complex conditions and syndromes, which are caused not only by a mutation, but by several genes acting. This method has been quickly improved and can have many applications in drug development studies, in agriculture and eventually in the treatment of genetic conditions in humans.

Feng Zhang S is a researcher and teacher at the MIT’s Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences and Biological Engineering in the McGovern Institute for Brain Research. Zhang developed tools that are highly used in the study of genetic disorders and are used in turn for the development of diagnoses and treatments. These engineering tools are of great help to understand genetically linked functions and diseases. Zhang was the pioneer in the development of Crispr-CAs as a genome editor and his

Use in eukaryotic cells, including human cells, based on the CRISPR of the immune system naturally found in prokaryotic cells. It has also substantially expanded this system by discovering new CRISPR. These tools not only include CRISPR aimed at DNA modification, but can also be used in RNA modification.

I understand in my opinion that the manipular embryos of human beings are not ethical. Ethics is based on the postulate that the human being is a unique and unrepeatable being. The ability to self-aware. 

That conscience or that free will allows us to choose. The difference of human being and other organisms reside in the capacity of choice and not only adapt to the environment, but also transform it, including the decisions we make freely, consciously assuming the consequences. Ethics establishes that all individuals are born with that right, we still find ourselves in early stages of our training development.

The situation that is born from genetic manipulation lies, in my opinion, and where it finds a coke with ethics is that this human being at an embryo or fertilized ovum level is not deciding on the processes that are being carried out in itsorganism. Although these procedures are carried out in the process of benefits to the health and development of that individual, that human being is not deciding for himself, which is where the freedom that covers us under universal human rights lies. In addition, of the procedure not to be carried out successfully, the individual will have to load with the consequences of life, or death.

I also understand that there is a fine line between manipulating the human genome in the process of mitigating diseases and conditions, and manipulation to decide how that perfect human being should be. This would lead us to discriminate between the race is better than the other, and therefore decide which race should be perpetuated for future generations because it represents an advance to humanity in genetic terms, and that race should be decreased, thus eliminating the factor of the factor of theDiversity of our race.

I understand in my opinion that the government should establish the laws that serve as a guide and guard to ensure that these experiments are carried out in an ethical and moral way, with results for the benefit of humanity. In recent years, disciplines have been developed to address these issues. Bioethics is a branch of ethics that aims. Bioethics also deals with the life and destiny of the human being.

The term ‘Bioethics’ was created by Van Rensselaer Potter, an oncologist, who in his article entitled ‘The Science of Survival’ published in 1970, establishes the benefits of joining the knowledge of ethics and biology. This is born to the need to create a science that studies the separation of science and ethics with the purpose of stopping the environmental damage that humanity endangers. Thus, the progress of science must be guided by an ethical reflection to prevent any attack against humanity. 

The doctor. Van Rensselaer Potter was a professor of oncology at the Mc Cardle Laboratory of Cancer Research at Wisconsin University in Madison. Its purpose was to create a discipline that included biology, ecology, medicine and human values. The writings of Rensselaer Potter about this issue are: "The science of survival";and Bioethics: Bridge to the future.

According to Francisco J. Elizari Basterra, Bioethics is ‘the systematic study of human behavior in the field of life sciences and health care, in which this behavior is examined in the light of moral values and principles’ Elizari Basterra, F. J., Bioethics. Theology Library. According to this definition, the study of human behavior in the field of life and health care sciences should be considered. And, the formal study object must be based on examining that behavior in the light of moral values and principles in a systematic way. This helps doctors and other health professionals to make correct decisions in the cases they attend.

From the point of view of bioethical reflection, the creation of these genetic engineering techniques, which have as its purpose either to cure diseases or save the life of a human being, in my opinion, are justified. However, if these genetic techniques depart from this optimal purpose and, on the contrary, they are carried out to carry out manipulations that interfere not only against the welfare of the human being, but also annihilate or destroy it in their individuality, then, then,They are completely immoral.


Science has to be at the service of human life and, never against him. When science encourages and guarantees human life, it is considered an advance in favor of human life. However, when science attempts against human life becomes illegitimate. Therefore, the procedure that tries to alter the human genome to create a perfect species, having and preference between one race or another, is not legitimate, since, with it, it is threatened against unity, individuality and uniqueness of being of beinghuman. 

I also consider the creation of hybrid organisms, mixing the human genome with that of another animal species with the objective of taking a benefit, either in the creation of compatible organs for the human being, at the expense of the life of another organism: eachperson, in their physical, biological and spiritual reality, constitutes a specific unity. Respect human life, means not altering or attempting against that singularity of the human person. Finally, regarding genetic manipulation, we have to establish fundamental ethical guides that appeals to the deep sense and human meaning that it possesses. Niceto Blázquez, affirms the following:

 “With the human genome we must follow the same ethical criteria as with the life and health of people.  Do not do with a human genome what you would not do with an adult person! Or, what is the same, treat the human genome as yourself!”Blázquez, Niceto, fundamental bioethics. B.A.C. Madrid, 1996, P. 355. According to the above, I understand that the intention was good, but violated the rights of those girls to the election. In addition, as studied in class, genes work together for the expression of different features and capacities. 

I would have to wait to see if that change in the genome could affect other areas of genetic expression, not contemplated or viewed at the experimental level, because these would be the first girls with this modification. These girls will be subject to research, since we should wait to see the development of the different life stages of these girls to determine whether that change in redundo for the benefit for the human genome.


  • Multiplex Genome Engineering Using Crispr/Cas Systems. Cong, l., RAN, f.A., Cox, d., Lin, s., Barretto, r., Habib, n., HSU, p.D., Wu, x., Jiang, w., Marraffini, l.A., Zhang, f. (2013). Science 339, 819-823
  • C2C2 IS A SINGLE-COMPONENT PROGRAMMABLE RNA-GUIDED RNA-TARGING CRISPR EFFECTOR.Abudayyeh, or.EITHER., Gootenberg, j.S., Konermann, s., Joung, j., Slaymaker, i.M., Cox, d.B., Shmakov, s., Makarova, k.S., Lmellish, e., MINAKHIN, l., Severinov, k., Regev, a., Lander, e.S., Koonin, e.V., Zhang, f. (2016). Science 353, AAF5573.
  • Blázquez, Niceto, fundamental bioethics. B.A.C. Madrid, 1996, P. 355.
  • Elizari Basterra, F. J., Bioethics. Theology Library. San Pablo, Madrid, 1991 (2nd edition) Electronic Sources consulted

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