Brief history of the mathematics and small biography of Alan Turing

## The application of mathematics in our daily lives

If there were no mathematics, our life would be boring, very square, and also disorganized in some way. The importance of mathematics is insurmountable, it is a fascinating theme, which can help you in several aspects of life. They help you strengthen the power of reasoning, the power to solve problems, and you can also enrich your spirit using mathematics regularly.

Mathematics is something fundamental to advance intellectually and at the same time socially to the world. They apply in absolutely every work that exists, for example: a shopkeeper needs to know about mathematics to make quick and precise calculations not to waste time, a scientist, by making formulas and scientific notations, etc. There is an indeterminate amount of examples, but what I want to make the reader understand is that mathematics is basic to have a healthy life

How can mathematics help have a healthy life? , Well, the answer is easy, they help you balance the things of your life and help you organize, therefore, there is less level of stress in the human brain. As a human being, mathematics applies and is part of my daily routine. They apply when I am playing tennis, since I have to calculate the time, speed, distance, and one to which the ball travels to hit it properly, they apply when I am playing to poke, also when I leave the house and calculate the estimated timethat I will be outside, and so on.

## What are mathematics?

Currently "mathematics is considered a formal science that studies the properties and relationships between abstract entities such as numbers, geometric figures or symbols" (Wikipedia.org, unknown author). The word itself comes from the Greek "Mathema", which means science, knowledge, and learning.

Mathematics were not made instantly for some magician, but were being done step by step, idea for idea, by several people who learned from other cultures. To this day, some mathematical ideas that were created more than four years ago are still used.

## Greek culture

Greece, also known as the "cradle of this science", had enough mathematicians who turned mathematics into a rational and structured science such as Pythagoras, Archimedes, Euclid, Plato, Hypatia, etc.

The contributions of the mathematical Greeks to science enriched and improved science itself, but what were the mathematical contributions of the Greeks?, Well, two of the most important were,

Thales’s theorem discovered by Thales de Miletus between 624-546 to.C, dictated that, "if a target is drawn in a triangle to any of its sides, a triangle is obtained that is similar to the given triangle" . Thales had Pythagoras and Anaximens as disciples (other Greek mathematicians), and also founded the School of Ionia . The second was by Pythagoras between 569-475 to.C, also considered the first pure mathematician. Contributed significantly in the advance of Hellenic mathematics, geometry, and arithmetic. His best known contribution was Pythagoras’ theorem that is still taught today in schools.

## Chinese culture

Mathematics in China were equally concise as literature. There are many legends about the beginning in China, but the most concrete, is that they began since very old times due to accounts with knots and other utensils. Near the 4th century to.C, abacos were used to calculate, that means that decimal numbers were used.

In 1984 an arithmetic book was discovered, written around the year 180 to.C, called Suan Shu, and written by Du Zhong in bamboo strips. This Chinese book is considered the most famous of all time, it has nine chapters.

These are the three best -known Chinese contributions worldwide:

- Cheng da Wei wrote the systematic treatise of arithmetic
- Zhang HENG investigated the magic square
- Qin Jiushao wrote the mathematical treaty in nine sections and also worked with the Chinese theorem.

## Egyptian culture

Egyptian mathematics was more than empirical. This means that it was based on the experience and observation of the facts.

What we know about Egyptian mathematics is that they are based on two documents that are: the Moscow papyrus, and the Rhind papyrus. The Moscow papyrus dates from 1800 to.C and 1650 A.C Rhind’s. The Rhind papyrus has sum, subtraction, multiplication, division, powers, square roots, calculations of areas and triangles, and etc. Moscow’s had 25 problems with solutions, but the best known was the calculation of the volume of a truncated pyramid. Of the two papyri, only that we can see are only checks, but the demonstrations never.

Rhind Papyrus Papyrus from Moscow

## Roman culture

The Romans basically adopted Greek science, and used it mostly for accounting.

They created various mathematical models for astronomy.

The mathematical Romans, such as Lucio Taruzio Firmano and Tejón de Alejandría, more practical than theoretical, always sought the application, more in construction (architecture). However, Marco Vitruvio was the best known architect and engineer in Rome. The use of geometry more than anything for construction works, the most valued in the Rome of Julio César were the aqueducts, the bridges, military and mines engineering, and metallurgy. An appreciated mathematician was Gromatic Higino. This was an expert in gnomonic and wrote extensive investigation in surveying (land measurement).

The best known contribution of the Romans was for Heron, writing the metric, where he studies the areas and volumes of various surfaces and bodies. He also developed square root calculation techniques through iterations.

## Mayan culture

It is said that zero was invented by the Maya, since it is known that they used a vigesimal numbering system that included the concept of zero. The system was based on points and bars. Zero was represented as a peel, a point as a unit, and a line, like five units. This system is known as the Mayan binary system.

The Maya were very precise with mathematics, in fact, their Mayan solar calendar was more precise than the one we used today.

They used mathematics in astronomy, religious purposes and also in the time account.A very important contribution from the Maya "would be" zero, but it is not yet known if it was invented by the Hindus or the Chinese.

## Alan Mathison Turing

### Who was Alan Turing?

Alan Mathison Turing, was born in London, 1912, the United Kingdom, and died in Wilmslow, the United Kingdom, 1954.. He was a British mathematician well known particularly for his skills in World War II.

### What did the mathematician Alan Turing?

He built a machine that operated and read instructions from a tape and thus emulated the logic of operation of any computer algorithm.

## Biography

The mathematician studied thirteen years of his life in India, where his father worked in colonial administration. When the young man returned to the United Kingdom, he studied at the Kings College and after his graduation, he moved to the American Princeton University.

In 1937, he published an article in which he defined an endless capacity calculating machine that operated by a series of logical instructions, thus using the algorithm bases.Alan realized that thanks to his computer theory, a certain type of computer machine could be built.

The most important stage of Alan Turing’s life was in World War II when he used his machine to decipher encoded messages that the German navy used to send instructions to the submarines that harassed the convoys sent from the United States. Your machine could make combinatorial calculations much faster than any human being. Turing also contributed to branches of applied mathematics, such as applying analytical and mechanical methods to the biological problem of morphogenesis.

An interesting fact about the mathematician is that his homosexual status, which caused strong social and family pressures.

It is not known how Alan Turing died but most likely it was due to accidental poisoning or a suicide attempt.

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