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Book report and its chapters
This textbook is structured in several parts, the chapter and 3 belong to the first part called Fundamentals of the Valuation of Health, and Chapter 18 corresponds to Part III, Special Population Groups. Chapter 1 deals with the foundations for clinical competence. A guide is provided to achieve clinical skill in two areas: health history and physical examination.
The components of the health history are also described and how to organize the information provided by the patient and gives a general idea to perform physical examination with a sequence that ensures the patient’s comfort, and offers brief descriptions of exploration techniques in eachpart of this, from the general exploration to the neurological. In particular, aspects regarding reasoning, evaluation and clinical plan are mentioned, as well as the quality clinical file.
Among the most relevant aspects of chapter 1, there is the way to perform the patient evaluation, in two ways: complete or directed, it is explained how the complete evaluation of an adult is performed, from anamnesis to the full physical examination of the adult, relevant information is presented on how the exploration begins by preparing an adequate environment, which exploration techniques should be used and a general description of physical examination.
Some tips include, think how to address the patient, regulate lighting and the environment, check the equipment from a pen to a sphygmomanometer and in general make the patient feel comfortable. Another important element is the sequence of exploration. This chapter presents in an easy way several schemes that help handle adequate physical examination, and reinforces the classic technical concepts: inspection, palpation, percussion and auscultation and the sequence of head to feet for physical examination.
This segment addresses the anamnesis and medical history, and the information about the different essential and often complex skills is expanded to structure a relationship with the patient and obtain their story, some basic and advanced interview techniques and the approach to the interview are also describedsome patients that constitute a challenge.
In detail, the interview process is explained a lot from the anamnesis format presented in the first chapter, they deepen the concepts of the interview, ratifying that it constitutes more than a simple series of questions;requires sensitivity to the feelings and behavior of the patient.
The format of the health history provides an adequate framework to organize the patient’s story in several categories regarding the present and past health status, as well as the family history. The objectives of the interview and the format of the health history are complementary, but different. There are several especially appropriate techniques to bring to light the main concerns of the patient and to know the current disease.
The format of the medical history is a structured framework to organize patient information in a written or verbal way;This format focuses on the doctor in specific aspects, facilitates clinical reasoning and clarifies the communication of patient, diagnoses and plans to other health professionals involved in their care.
The doctor -centered questions, closed, of themselves or not, are more appropriate for medical records, family history, personal and social background, and systems review. The chapter clearly exposes in different summaries the detailed step for a successful anamnesis of the patient’s medical history, including extraverbal language in the patient’s interview.
Chapter 18 Pediatric Evaluation: From breastfeeding to adolescence, it travels as the title points out by various stages of development in pediatrics, it deals with pediatric clinical evaluation, distinguishing groups by age, starting with the general principles of development andKey elements of health promotion.
Different sections are dedicated to newborns, children of less than 1 year, young and school age, and adolescents, and important information about development, anamnesis, promotion and advice on health andExploration techniques for each of these groups. Specifically, aspects of:
- General principles of child development
- Health promotion and advice: key concepts
- Newborn evaluation
- Evaluation several hours after birth
- Infant evaluation
- Evaluation of young children and school age
- Adolescent evaluation
The different phases from the newborn to the adolescent are properly compiled, in addition it synthesizes it in the form of tables that constitute reference material. It extends to the general principles of child development, the promotion and advice of health key concepts, aspects of evidence and recommendations, in another section addresses the exploration techniques, for general recognition and vital signs of head to feet, and recommendations for the groupsAge of 1 to 4 years, and from 5 to 10, finally stops adolescence from 11 to 20 years old with the same scheme followed throughout the book of Anamnesis and physical examination.